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Table 4 Test case findings about knowledge of providers in diagnosing and managing postpartum hemorrhage by facility and provider type

From: Assessment of facility readiness and provider preparedness for dealing with postpartum haemorrhage and pre-eclampsia/eclampsia in public and private health facilities of northern Karnataka, India: a cross-sectional study

Knowledge parameter assessed through the test case Total CI [95% Conf. Interval] PHC (204) HF-PUBLIC (147) HF-PVT (124) P Value* Nurse/ ANM (248) Doctors (138) Obstetricians (89) P Value**
Identify first action - checking uterine tone 37.7 33.3-42.2 27.9 44.2 46.0 0.001 25.4 33.3 78.7 <0.001
List uterine atony as a common cause of PPH 38.7 34.3-43.3 27.9 44.2 50.0 <0.001 18.5 50.7 76.4 <0.001
List retained placenta as a common cause of PPH 54.9 50.3-59.5 52.9 56.5 56.5 0.748 46.0 63.0 67.4 <0.001
List vaginal or cervical tears as a common cause of PPH 60.0 55.4-64.4 59.8 63.3 56.5 0.520 54.4 60.1 75.3 0.003
Correctly define early PPH 40.2 35.8-44.8 43.6 38.1 37.1 0.414 30.6 45.7 58.4 <0.001
Correctly diagnose genital trauma as a cause of PPH 53.3 48.7-57.8 45.6 53.7 65.3 0.002 36.7 59.4 89.9 <0.001
Perform a speculum examination for PPH with contracted uterus 36.0 31.7-40.5 25.5 44.2 43.5 <0.001 26.2 30.4 71.9 <0.001
Check vital signs as a part of the initial assessment 68.2 63.8-72.4 65.7 70.7 69.4 0.574 62.1 71.7 79.8 0.005
Prescribe starting IV 55.2 50.6-59.7 54.4 56.5 54.8 0.927 49.6 54.3 71.9 0.001
List blood hemoglobin as an essential test required 17.7 14.4-21.4 11.8 21.1 23.4 0.012 9.3 17.4 41.6 0.002
Monitor vital signs 59.2 54.6-63.6 52.0 59.2 71.0 0.003 51.6 59.4 79.8 <0.001
  1. HF- Higher Facility; CHC - Community Health Centre; TH – Taluka (sub district) Hospital; DH – District Hospital; PVT - Private Hospital; ANM – Auxiliary Nurse Midwife; PPH – Postpartum hemorrhage; IV – Intravenous.
  2. *Pearson’s chi-square test for independence between providers by facilities.
  3. **Pearson’s chi-square test for independence between providers by provider type.