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Table 4 Effect of DSF modes on mortality and morbidity

From: Effects of demand-side financing on utilisation, experiences and outcomes of maternity care in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review

  Study Study data Effect 95% confidence interval, s.e. or p-value
Effect on maternal mortality
Conditional cash transfers
  Hernandez Prado et al. [25] 1995-2002 11% decrease (relative risk 0.89) compared to control areas CI: 0.82, 0.95
Payments to offset costs of access
  No studies    
Vouchers for maternity services
  Hatt et al. [8] 2009 No effect compared to control areas p = 0.42
Effect on maternal morbidity
Conditional cash transfers
  No studies    
Payments to offset costs of access
  No studies    
Vouchers for maternity services
  No studies    
Effect on perinatal, neonatal and infant mortality
Conditional cash transfers
  Barham et al. [26] 1992-2001 No effect on neonatal mortality s.e.: 0.5
17% reduction in infant mortality p < 0.01
  Hernandez Prado et al. [25] 1995-2002 2% reduction in infant mortality p < 0.05
Payments to offset costs of access
  Lim et al. [9] 2002-2004, 2007-2009 2.3-2.4 fewer neonatal deaths per 1,000 live births CI: 0.7, 4.1
6.2 fewer neonatal deaths per 1,000 live births CI: -8.1, 20.4
  Powell-Jackson et al. [35] 2002-2004, 2007-2009 No effect on neonatal mortality p > 0.1
  Powell-Jackson et al. [61] 2001-2007 No effect on neonatal mortality p > 0.05
Vouchers for maternity services
  Hatt et al. [8] 2009 1 percentage point lower in intervention areas (stillbirths) p < 0.001
No effect on neonatal deaths compared to control areas p = 0.15
Effect on perinatal, neonatal and infant morbidity
Conditional cash transfers
  Barber and Gertler [30] 2003 Increased average birth weight p = 0.02
4.6 percentage point reduction in incidence of low birth-weight p = 0.05
  Hernandez Prado et al. [27] 2003 No effect on incidence of low birth-weight p > 0.1
Payments to offset costs of access
  No studies    
Vouchers for maternity services
  No studies    
  1. Notes. Effect is presented as odds ratio (OR), mean difference compared to controls or percentage increase from baseline. Confidence intervals (CI) are shown if they have been provided in the study, otherwise standard errors (s.e.) and p-values are shown. No quantitative studies on unconditional cash transfers were included in the systematic review. No quantitative studies on vouchers for merit goods considered impact on maternal, infant or neonatal morbidity or mortality.