Skip to main content

Table 1 Clinical characteristics of the women with gestational diabetes and controls at index pregnancy and the follow-up study

From: Long-term changes in glucose metabolism after gestational diabetes: a double cohort study

  GDM patients (n = 489) Controls (n = 385)  
  Mean SD Mean SD P
Index pregnancy      
Age at delivery (yrs) 32.0 5.9 29.6 5.3 <0.001
Parity 1.1 1.3 0.7 0.9 <0.001
Primipara/multipara (%) 36.6/63.4 54.5/45.6 <0.001
Waist (cm) 91.3 13.4 86.3 11.7 <0.001
BMI in the first trimester (kg/m2) 26.4 4.8 24.1 3.8 <0.001
Duration of the pregnancy (weeks) 39.3 1.5 39.5 1.7 0.095
Birth weight of the child (g) 3648 545 3579 570 0.065
Follow-up study*      
Age at follow up (yrs) 37.8 7.2 38.4 6.3 0.200
Follow-up time (yrs) 6.0 4.4 9.0 5.5 <0.001
Family history of diabetes (%) 81.0   71.5   0.001
Current smoker (%) 18.8   13.6   0.040
BMI (kg/m2) 28.4 5.5 26.9 4.9 <0.001
HbA1c [mmol/mol (%)] 36 (5.5) 5 35 (5.3) 3 <0.001
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l) 5.6 0.5 5.3 0.4 <0.001
30-min plasma glucose (mmol/l) 8.0 1.7 7.1 1.5 <0.001
2-h plasma glucose (mmol/l) 6.0 1.7 5.5 1.2 <0.001
Fasting plasma insulin (pmol/l) 79.2 55.6 63.2 43.1 <0.001
30-min plasma insulin (pmol/l) 507.0 355.6 439.0 266 0.013
2-hour plasma insulin (pmol/l) 351.4 327.1 278.5 242.4 <0.001
P-glucose area under the curve (mmol/l*min) 832.6 160.3 749.6 130.6 <0.001
P-insulin area under the curve (pmol/l*min) 40880.3 28499.6 34414 21656 <0.001
HOMA-IR 2.9 2.1 2.2 1.6 <0.001
Matsuda ISI (mg/dl, mU/l) 5.7 3.2 7.1 3.6 <0.001
Disposition Index 167.4 65.1 206.3 77.6 <0.001
  1. *Individuals diagnosed with type 2 diabetes during the follow-up time (n = 15) were not included in HbA1C and oral glucose tolerance tests. HOMA-IR, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance. P-values < 0.05 are indicated in bold font.