Skip to main content

Table 4 Logistic regression-based Attributable Fraction (AF), Stratum-specific Total Attributable Fraction (sTAF) and overall Total Attributable Fraction (TAF) of not attending any antenatal visit, insufficient antenatal visit (<4 visits) and lack of skilled attendant at birth in each stratum from 1988 to 2008 presented in 5 years intervals

From: Magnitude and trends of inequalities in antenatal care and delivery under skilled care among different socio-demographic groups in Ghana from 1988 – 2008

No antenatal care visit
  1988 1993 1998 2003 2008
  AF (sTAF) AF (sTAF) AF (sTAF) AF (sTAF) AF (sTAF)
Residence *      
 Urban   Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Rural   0.73 (0.68) 0.52 (0.47) 0.62 (0.59) 0.44 (0.39)
 TAF   0.68 0.47 0.59 0.39
 p-value   0.000 0.035 0.001 0.211
Highest educational level *      
 No education   0.94 (0.68) 0.92 (0.70) - 0.41 (0.21)
 Basic education   0.76 (0.20) 0.77 (0.18)   0.16 (0.08)
 Secondary+   Ref Ref   Ref
 TAF   0.88 0.88   0.29
 p-value   0.000 0.000   0.439
Income level *      
 Low income   No data 0.17 (0.09) 0.47 (0.39) 0.68 (0.54)
 Average income    - 0.23 (0.03) 0.47 (0.06)
 High income    Ref Ref Ref
 TAF    0.09 0.42 0.60
 p-value    0.455 0.095 0.056
Parity*      
 Nulliparous   Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Para 1-3   0.38 (0.19) 0.16 (0.07) 0.09 (0.04) 0.67 (0.32)
 Para 4+   0.38 (0.14) 0.16 (0.07) 0.50 (0.24) 0.82 (0.36)
 TAF   0.33 0.14 0.28 0.68
 p-value   0.151 0.832 0.026 0.007
Less than four antenatal visits
  1988 1993 1998 2003 2008
  AF (sTAF) AF (sTAF) AF (sTAF) AF (sTAF) AF (sTAF)
Residence *      
 Urban   Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Rural   0.71 (0.62) 0.57 (0.50) 0.58 (0.52) 0.33 (0.28)
 TAF   0.62 0.50 0.52 0.28
 p-value   0.000 0.000 0.000 0.013
Highest educational level *      
 No education   0.90 (0.50) 0.90 (0.52) 0.77 (0.47) 0.55 (0.28)
 Basic education   0.77 (0.34) 0.82 (0.33) 0.62 (0.23) 0.33 (0.16)
 Secondary+   Ref Ref Ref Ref
 TAF   0.84 0.85 0.70 0.44
 p-value   0.000 0.000 0.000 0.006
Income level *      
 Low income   No data 0.33 (0.18) 0.57 (0.40) 0.71 (0.52)
 Average income    0.16 (0.04) 0.57 (0.11) 0.64 (0.10)
 High income    Ref Ref Ref
 TAF    0.22 0.51 0.62
 p-value    0.002 0.000 0.000
Parity*      
 Nulliparous   Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Para 1-3   0.09 (0.04) 0.33 (0.15) 0.23 (0.10) 0.44 (0.21)
 Para 4+   0.23 (0.08) 0.50 (0.19) 0.57 (0.23) 0.71 (0.26)
 TAF   0.12 0.34 0.33 0.47
 p-value   0.423 0.007 0.000 0.000
Lacked skilled attendant at birth
  1988 1993 1998 2003 2008
  AF (sTAF) AF (sTAF) AF (sTAF) AF (sTAF) AF (sTAF)
Residence *      
 Urban Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Rural 0.77 (0.66) 0.88 (0.80) 0.77 (0.70) 0.66 (0.59) 0.58 (0.50)
 TAF 0.66 0.80 0.70 0.59 0.50
 p-value 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Highest educational level *      
 No education 0.80 (0.44) 0.85 (0.46) 0.85 (0.51) 0.84 (0.49) 0.73 (0.38)
 Basic education 0.55 (0.23) 0.55 (0.24) 0.62 (0.24) 0.68 (0.26) 0.47 (0.22)
 Secondary+ Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 TAF 0.67 0.70 0.75 0.75 0.60
 p-value 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Income level *   No data    
 Low income 0.41 (0.20)   0.41 (0.20) 0.77 (0.57) 0.77 (0.59)
 Average income 0.23 (0.04)   0.09 (0.02) 0.63 (0.11) 0.52 (0.07)
 High income Ref   Ref Ref Ref
 TAF 0.24   0.22 0.68 0.66
 p-value 0.000   0.001 0.000 0.000
Parity*      
 Nulliparous Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Para 1-3 0.38 (0.17) 0.44 (0.22) 0.47 (0.21) 0.44 (0.20) 0.44 (0.16)
 Para 4+ 0.38 (0.15) 0.50 (0.17) 0.71 (0.28) 0.62 (0.24) 0.62 (0.20)
 TAF 0.32 0.39 0.49 0.44 0.36
 p-value 0.007 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.001
  1. *Mutually adjusted for one another, age, marital status, and the clustering at individual and household levels.