Skip to main content

Table 2 Prevalence of less than four antenatal visits and lack of skilled attendant at birth according to socio-demographic characteristics among Ghanaian women 15–49 years from 1988 to 2008 presented in 5 years intervals

From: Magnitude and trends of inequalities in antenatal care and delivery under skilled care among different socio-demographic groups in Ghana from 1988 – 2008

  Less than four antenatal visits Lack of skilled attendant at birth
  1993 1998 2003 2008 1988 1993 1998 2003 2008
n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)
Residence          
 Urban 94 (16.9) 97 (18.2) 91 (11.8) 73 (9.8) 219 (28.6) 105 (18.6) 128 (23.1) 160 (19.6) 138 (18.1)
 Rural 687 (49.1) 732 (40.7) 691 (36.5) 371 (27.6) 1364 (70.4) 1007 (71.3) 1254 (69.0) 1367 (70.1) 849 (61.5)
 Total 781 829 782 444 1583 1112 1382 1527 987
Highest educational level          
 No education 433 (55.4) 484 (46.4) 475 (39.3) 220 (29.7) 880 (73.9) 608 (76.6) 825 (77.8) 920 (72.7) 517 (67.0)
 Basic education 341 (32.1) 338 (29.3) 300 (22.8) 211 (18.2) 675 (49.3) 487 (45.5) 539 (45.9) 593 (43.7) 448 (38.0)
 Secondary + 7 (6.2) 7 (5.2) 7 (5.0) 13 (7.0) 28 (19.7) 17 (15) 18 (13.1) 14 (9.7) 22 (11.5)
 Total 781 829 782 444 1583 1112 1382 1527 987
Income level          
 Low income No data 304 (39.9) 551 (38.6) 326 (30.5) 387 (65.5) No data 532 (69.2) 1120 (76.0) 753 (68.2)
 Average income   112 (31.0) 156 (32.0) 77 (20.8) 166 (52.2)   188 (51.6) 270 (53.8) 135 (36.0)
 High income   148 (24.7) 75 (10.0) 41 (6.3) 235 (43.1)   261 (42.3) 137 (17.4) 99 (14.9)
 Total   564 782 444 788   981 1527 987
Parity          
 Nulliparous 137 (34.6) 150 (30.1) 133 (23.6) 75 (17.0) 245 (47.9) 174 (43.5) 224 (43.8) 245 (42.4) 152 (33.3)
 Para 1-3 386 (39.2) 365 (33.5) 332 (27.3) 207 (19.5) 714 (59.5) 558 (56.1) 620 (56.1) 690 (53.9) 475 (43.7)
 Para 4+ 258 (44.9) 314 (42.3) 317 (35.9) 162 (27.7) 624 (63.2) 380 (65.1) 538 (71.3) 592 (65.3) 360 (60.1)
 Total 781 829 782 444 1583 1112 1382 1527 987