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Table 1 Socio-demographic characteristics, antenatal care, delivery under skilled care and valid percent (%) among Ghanaian women 15–49 years with birth history from 1988 to 2008 presented in 5 years intervals

From: Magnitude and trends of inequalities in antenatal care and delivery under skilled care among different socio-demographic groups in Ghana from 1988 – 2008

  Year
  1988 1993 1998 2003 2008
Age      
<25 763 (28.1) 600 (30.3) 617 (26.0) 649 (23.4) 518 (24.1)
25-34 1249 (46.0) 957 (48.3) 1055 (44.4) 1288 (46.4) 985 (45.9)
35+ 704 (25.9) 423 (21.4) 704 (29.6) 840 (30.2) 644 (30.0)
Total 2716 (100) 1980 (100) 2376 (100) 2777 (100) 2147 (100)
Residence      
Urban 771 (28.4) 567 (28.6) 555 (23.4) 817 (29.4) 763 (35.5)
Rural 1945 (71.6) 1413 (71.4) 1821 (76.6) 1960 (70.6) 1384
Total 2716 (100) 1980 (100) 2376 (100) 2777 (100) (64.5) 2147 (100)
Highest educational level      
No education 1197 (44.1) 795 (40.2) 1062 (44.7) 1272 (45.8) 774 (36.1)
Basic education 1376 (50.7) 1072 (54.1) 1177 (49.5) 1361 (49.0) 1180 (55.0)
Secondary 126 (4.6) 98 (4.9) 113 (4.8) 113 (4.1) 143 (6.7)
Higher 17 (0.6) 15 (0.8) 24 (1.0) 31 (1.1) 48 (2.2)
Total 2716 (100) 1980 (100) 2376 (100) 2777 (100) 2145 (100)
Missing 0 0 0 0 2
Marital status      
Married 2396 (88.2) 1807 (91.3) 2109 (88.8) 2509 (90.3) 1907 (88.8)
Single 319 (11.7) 173 (8.7) 267 (11.2) 268 (9.7) 240 (11.2)
Total 2715 (100) 1980 (100) 2376 (100) 2777 (100) 2147 (100)
Missing 1 0 0 0 0
Income level      
Low income 595 (40.7) No data 772 (44.0) 1482 (53.4) 1107 (51.6)
Average income 320 (21.9) 364 (20.8) 503 (18.1) 375 (17.5)
High income 547 (37.4) 618 (35.2) 792 (28.5) 665 (31.0)
Total 1462 (100) 1754 (100) 2777 (100) 2147 (100)
Missing 1254 622 0 0
Parity      
Nulliparous 515 (19.0) 400 (20.2) 512 (21.5) 578 (20.8)) 457 (21.3)
Para 1-3 1206 (44.4) 7996 (50.3) 1107 (46.6) 1288 (46.4) 1089 (50.7)
Para 4+ 995 (36.6) 584 (29.5) 757 (31.9) 911 (32.8) 601 (28.0)
Total 2716 (100) 1980 (100) 2376 (100) 2777 (100) 2147 (100)
Less than one antenatal visit      
No No data 1702 (87.1) 2070 (88.8) 2445 (92.1) 1995 (96.1)
Yes 253 (12.9) 261 (11.2) 211 (7.9) 82 (3.9)
Total 1955 (100) 2331 (100) 2656 (100) 2077 (100)
Missing 25 45 121 70
Less than four antenatal visits      
No No data 1174 (60.1) 1502 (64.4) 1881 (70.6) 1644 (78.7)
Yes 781 (39.9) 829 (35.6) 782 (29.4) 444 (21.3)
Total 1955 (100) 2331 (100) 2663 (100) 2088 (100)
Missing 25 45 114 59
Lack of skilled attendant at birth      
No 1120 (41.4) 866 (43.8) 989 (41.7) 1238 (44.8) 1157 (54.0)
Yes 1583 (58.6) 1112 (56.2) 1382 (58.3) 1527 (55.2) 987 (46.0)
Total 2703 (100) 1978 (100) 2371 (100) 2765 (100) 2144 (100)
Missing 13 2 5 12 3