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Table 4 Covariates associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes at 5 years of age

From: Association between gestational age at birth, antenatal corticosteroids, and outcomes at 5 years: multiple courses of antenatal corticosteroids for preterm birth study at 5 years of age (MACS-5)

Death or severe disability
Covariate Comparison OR [ 95% confidence limits] p-value
Gestational age at randomization 26-27 vs. 28+ weeks 1.02 [0.76, 1.38] 0.897
Premature rupture of membranes Yes vs. No 1.58 [1.14, 2.18] 0.009
Mother smokes Yes vs. No 1.62 [1.10, 2.40] 0.023
Parity 1+ vs. 0 1.26 [1.02, 1.56] 0.033
Country PMRa >10/1000 vs. ≤10/1000 1.33 [1.09, 1.61] 0.006
Neurosensory disability
Covariate Comparison OR [ 95% confidence limits] p -value
Gestational age at randomization 26-27 vs. 28+ weeks 1.04 [0.67, 1.60] 0.877
Premature rupture of membranes Yes vs. No 1.58 [0.94, 2.64] 0.110
Neurocognitive
Gestational age at randomization 26-27 vs. 28+ weeks 0.94 [0.64, 1.40] 0.764
Multiple pregnancy Yes vs. No 0.60 [0.41, 0.89] 0.006
Maternal smoking Yes vs. No 2.18 [1.44, 3.31] 0.002
Sex of the baby Male vs. Female 1.65 [1.23, 2.20] 0.001
Country PMRa >10/1000 vs. ≤10/1000 1.40 [1.10, 1.78] 0.012
Death
Gestational age at randomization 26-27 vs. 28+ weeks 1.42 [0.84, 2.40] 0.1984
Premature rupture of membranes Yes vs. No 2.08 [1.27, 3.41] 0.0089
parity 1+ vs. 0 1.44 [0.98, 2.11] 0.0700
Country PMRa >10/1000 vs. ≤10/1000 2.37 [1.69, 3.33] 0.0001
  1. aPMR = perinatal mortality rate.
  2. Countries with a national perinatal mortality rate of ≤10/1000 were: Canada, Chile, Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Israel, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States; countries with a national perinatal mortality rate of >10 - 20/1000 were: Argentina, Brazil, Peru; countries with a national perinatal mortality rate of >20/1000 were: Bolivia, China, Colombia, Jordan, Russia.