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Table 3 Outcomes of children at 5 years by gestational age at birth and ACS groupings

From: Association between gestational age at birth, antenatal corticosteroids, and outcomes at 5 years: multiple courses of antenatal corticosteroids for preterm birth study at 5 years of age (MACS-5)

  Preterm (<30 weeks) N = 200 Preterm (30–36 weeks) N = 1066 Term (≥37 weeks) N = 462
Outcome Multiple ACS N = 105 Single ACS N = 95 Multiple ACS N = 553 Single ACS N = 504 Multiple ACS N = 213a Single ACS N = 249
Death or severe disability (neuromotor, neurosensory, neurocognitive)§ 54/105 (51.4%) 50/95 (52.6%) 115/553 (20.8%) 122/504 (24.2%) 48/213 (22.5%) 38/249 (15.3%)
Death up to 5 years 29/105 (27.6%) 23/95 (24.2%) 16/555 (2.9%) 22/511 (4.3%) 1/213 (0.5%) 2/249 (0.8%)
Neuromotor disability †† (non-ambulatory cerebral palsy) 1/76 (1.3%) 6/72 (8.3%) 3/539 (0.6%) 4/489 (0.8%) 0/212 (0%) 1/247 (0.4%)
Neurosensory disability 13/76 (17.1%) 13/72 (18.1%) 38/539 (7.1%) 41/489 (8.4%) 19/212 (9.0%) 7/247 (2.8%)
Needing visual aids 9/76 (11.8%) 11/72 (15.3%) 35/539 (6.5%) 34/489 (7.0%) 17/212 (8.0%) 7/247 (2.8%)
Deafness 4/76 (5.3%) 2/72 (2.8%) 4/539 (0.7%) 3/489 (0.6%) 3/212 (1.4%) 1/247 (0.4%)
Pre-existing (diagnosed at 2 years or earlier) 3 2 1 2 0 0
New (diagnosed after 2 years of age) 1 0 3 1 3 1
Neurocognitive/neurobehavioural disability 15/76 (19.7%) 16/69 (23.2%) 62/534 (11.6%) 63/478 (13.2%) 31/212 (14.6%) 30/246 (12.2%)
  1. ACS= antenatal corticosteroid.
  2. a1 child lost to follow-up earlier in trial found and included at 5 years.
  3. §Clinical information of 19 cases missing/inadequate questionnaires were reviewed by an adjudication committee (10 cases were adjudicated to contribute to analysis and primary outcome; 9 had insufficient information).
  4. ††non-ambulatory cerebral palsy was defined as Gross Motor Function Classification System III, IV or V.