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Table 3 Causes of maternal near-miss (MNM) and death at a university hospital and a regional hospital in Tanzania between February and June 2012

From: Maternal near-miss and death and their association with caesarean section complications: a cross-sectional study at a university hospital and a regional hospital in Tanzania

  University hospital Regional hospital  
Cause of MNM or death MNM Death MNM Death Total
(n = 326) (n = 48) (n = 141) (n = 29) (n = 544)
Hypertensive disordersa 127 4 91 8 230 (42%)
Postpartum haemorrhage 48 5 13 3 69 (13%)
Other obstetric causesb 31 18 3 8 60 (11%)
Placenta complicationsc 46 5 2 1 54 (9.9%)
Ruptured uterus 26 0 7 2 35 (6.4%)
Extrauterine pregnancy 14 0 14 1 29 (5.3%)
Obstetric infectionsd 12 6 2 2 22 (4.0%)
Abortions < 28 weekse 11 3 6 1 21 (3.9%)
Indirect causesf 8 7 2 3 20 (3.7%)
Other causes < 28 weeksg 3 0 1 0 4 (0.74%)
  1. aSevere pre-eclampsia and eclampsia (212 MNM, 11 deaths), HELLP syndrom (Hemolysis Elevated Liver Enzymes Low Platelet count) (6 MNM, 1 death).
  2. bIatrogenic complications (9 MNM, 5 deaths), anaemia (12 MNM, 4 deaths), peripartum cardiomyopathy (9 MNM, 9 deaths), intra-abdominal haemorrhage after CS (2 MNM, 2 deaths), thrombo-embolic events (3 deaths), intoxication by herbs taken by woman to augment labour (2 deaths), coagulopathy due to intra-uterine fetal death (1 MNM, 1 death), renal failure (1 MNM).
  3. cAblatio (34 MNM, 6 deaths), previa (5 MNM), accreta (6 MNM), coriocarcinoma (3 MNM).
  4. dGestational age ≥ 28 weeks.
  5. eSpontaneous (11 MNM, 2 deaths) and unsafe abortions (6 MNM, 2 deaths).
  6. fHIV (3 MNM, 7 deaths), non-obstetric infections (2 MNM, 1 death), malaria (2 MNM), cholecystitis (1 MNM), asthma (1 death), sickle cell anaemia (1 MNM), epilepsy (1 MNM), intracranial lesion (1 death).
  7. gMolar pregnancy (3 MNM), hyperemesis (1 MNM).