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Table 4 Odds ratios for stillbirths and maternal characteristics using gestational age at first ANC visit in trimesters (Model 1) and as a continuous variable (Model 2)

From: The association between timing of initiation of antenatal care and stillbirths: a retrospective cohort study of pregnant women in Cape Town, South Africa

Variables Model 1 Model 2
aOR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI)
Number of observations 27,713 27,713
Gestational age at first ANC visit (Continuous) -- 1.01 (0.99-1.04)
Gestational age at first ANC visit (Trimester)   
1 st Trimester (ref) 1.00 --
2 nd Trimester 0.78 (0.39-1.59) --
3 rd Trimester 1.03 (0.50-2.13) --
Parity   
Nulliparous (ref) 1.00 1.00
Primi/Multiparous 1.20 (0.77-1.86) 1.20 (0.77-1.86)
Education   
None or primary (ref) 1.00 1.00
Secondary or tertiary 0.68 (0.34-1.38) 0.68 (0.34-1.37)
Missing 0.77 (0.32-1.85) 0.76 (0.32-1.84)
Race   
Coloured (ref) 1.00 1.00
Black 2.03 (1.33-2.10)a 2.01 (1.31-3.07)a
Other 2.42 (0.86-6.82) 2.43 (0.86-6.83)
Smoking   
Non-smoking (ref) 1.00 1.00
Smoking 1.10 (0.66-1.84) 1.10 (0.66-1.84)
Missing 0.61 (0.30-1.25) 0.61 (0.30-1.25)
Maternal age (continuous) 1.03 (1.00-1.07)a 1.03 (1.00-1.07)a
  1. All models are adjusted for parity, education, mother’s age, race, and smoking status.
  2. aOR, Adjusted Odds Ratio.
  3. aIndicates a significant aOR at 5% significance.