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Table 3 Maternal, first ANC visit and delivery characteristics of pregnancies that resulted in stillbirths and live births

From: The association between timing of initiation of antenatal care and stillbirths: a retrospective cohort study of pregnant women in Cape Town, South Africa

  Outcomes
Stillborn Alive p-value
Number of observations (%) 119 (0.4) 27,594 (99.6)  
Parity (n) (%)    
Nulliparous 50 (42.0) 11,868 (43.0) 0.83
Primi/Multiparous 69 (58.0) 15,726 (57.0)
Educational level (n) (%)    
None or primary 9 (7.6) 1,290 (4.7) 0.16
Secondary or tertiary 78 (65.6) 17,207 (62.4)
Missing 32 (26.9) 9,097 (33.0)
Race (n) (%)    
Coloured 56 (47.1) 17,990 (65.2) <0.001
Black 59 (49.6) 9,076 (32.9)
Other 4 (3.4) 528 (1.9)
Smoking (n) (%)    
Non-smoking 71 (59.7) 13,509 (49.0) <0.05
Smokers 26 (21.9) 6,678 (24.2)
Missing 22 (18.5) 7,407 (26.8)
First ANC visit facility (n) (%)    
Primary care facility 1 15 (12.6) 1,513 (5.5) <0.01
Primary care facility 2 21 (17.7) 6,652 (24.1)
Primary care facility 3 58 (48.7) 12,601 (45.7)
Primary care facility 4 25 (21.0) 6,828 (24.7)
First ANC visit year (n) (%)    
2006 9 (7.6) 2,779 (10.1) 0.38
2007 51 (42.9) 10,043 (36.4)
2008 50 (42.0) 11,896 (43.1)
2009 9 (7.6) 2,876 (10.4)
Delivery facility (n) (%)    
Primary care facility 1 3 (2.5) 684 (2.5) <0.001
Primary care facility 2 0 (0.0) 38 (0.1)
Primary care facility 3 6 (5.0) 4,660 (16.9)
Primary care facility 4 9 (7.6) 7,513 (27.2)
Primary care facility 5 5 (4.2) 3,693 (13.4)
Secondary hospital 1 33 (27.7) 4,692 (17.0)
Tertiary hospital 1 3 (2.5) 1,492 (5.4)
Tertiary hospital 2 60 (50.4) 4,822 (17.5)
Maternal age    
Median (IQR) 26 (21–31) 25 (21–29) 0.11
  1. IQR, Inter-quartile Range.