Skip to main content

Table 4 Chi-square analyses of associations between ‘effective suckling’ and proposed predictor variables

From: Effective suckling in relation to naked maternal-infant body contact in the first hour of life: an observation study

Independent variables Proportion effective suckle n (%) Χ2 p
Parity    
 Primipara 7 (9) 8.778 .003
 Multipara 23 (29.5)   
Birth type    
 Caesarean section 4 (5.1) 1.321 .250
 Vaginal 26 (33.3)   
Analgesia    
 No 18 (23.1) .000 1.000
 Yes 12 (15.4)   
Suction    
 No 28 (35.9) 8.563 .003
 Yes 2 (2.6)   
Baby’s chin nudges mother’s breast    
 No 4 (5.1) 6.508 0.011
 Yes 26 (33.3)   
Back of baby head held & assist to attach    
 No 25 (32.1) .343 .558
 Yes 5 (6.4)   
Skin-to-skin contact start & duration    
 Continuous uninterrupted skin-to-skin contact 11 (14.1) 3.685 0.298
 Interrupted skin-to-skin contact 11 (14.1)   
 Skin-to-skin later 7 (9)   
 No skin-to-skin contact 1 (1.3)