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Table 3 Descriptions of assistance mothers received to initiate breastfeeding in the birthing room by birth type

From: Effective suckling in relation to naked maternal-infant body contact in the first hour of life: an observation study

Description of assistance Birth type  
Caesar Vaginal TOTAL
n (%) n (%) n (%)
No assistance 5 (6.4) 9 (11.5) 9 (11.5)
a Hands ‘off’ support (without other support) 0 (0) 7 (9) 7 (9)
 Readiness of baby to breastfeed discussed    
 Encouragement given    
 Verbal instruction given    
 Mother assisted to another position    
 Mother’s hands guided to support baby    
 Baby feeding behaviour noted    
 Baby ability to breastfed affirmed    
 Assisted to sit up – bed wound up    
Hands ‘on’ position - minimal assistance 3 (3.8) 22 (28.2) 25 (32.1)
 Baby turned to face mother’s breast    
 Mother reassured and praise given    
 Instruction regards expressing    
 Father moves baby over to nipple    
 Baby positioned close to breast    
b,c Hands ‘on’ attach - moderate assistance 6 (7.7) 14 (17.9) 20 (25.6)
 Baby’s neck held by tong gripb    
 Mother’s breast shaped to help baby attachb    
 Baby held to breast for motherb    
 Back of baby head heldc 3 (3.8) 14 (17.9) 17 (21.8)
 Colostrum expressed for mother    
 Breastfeeding assistance offered    
  1. aMothers who received hands ‘on’ help also received hands ‘off’ support.
  2. b‘Hands on assistance to attach’ if any one of these.
  3. cBack of baby head held with help to attach Independent variable (IV).
  4. Full assistance – is assisted with both positioning and attachment.