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Table 2 Labor and birth

From: Effective suckling in relation to naked maternal-infant body contact in the first hour of life: an observation study

  Births observed Queensland perinatal data (2005)
n (%) (%)
Onset of labor   
 Spontaneous 43 (55.1) (57.2)
 Induced 25 (32.1) (23.4)
 No labour (c/s) 10 (12.8) (19.5)
Adverse birth event   
 Prolonged 2nd stage &/or failure to progress 9 (11.5) (12.4)
 Foetal distress &/or meconium liquor 12 (15.4) (20.2)
 Labour <4 hours (precipitate birth) 10 (14.7) (23.5)
Method of Analgesia during labor a   
 At least one method 55 (70.5) (63.6)
 Nitrous oxide 52 (66.7) (62.4)
 Pethidine (narcotic IM/IV)b 22 (28.2) (35.3)
 Epidural 24 (30.8) (33.9)
 Spinal anaesthesia/other 11 (14.1) (10.1)
Vaginal birth   
 Spontaneous vertex 52 (66.7) (59.5)
 Forceps/vacuum extraction 9 (11.5) (7.9)
Caesarean section   
 Elective caesarean section 10 (12.8) (19.5)
 Emergency caesarean section 7 (9) (13)
Episiotomy 11 (14.1) (13.5)
Baby Apgar score @ 1 minute   
 Score of 6 – 7c 8 (6.5) (14.8)
 Score of 8 - 10 70 (89.7) (83.2)
Baby Apgar score @ 5 minutes   
 Score of 8 - 10 78 (100) (97.4)
Birth weight by gestation   
 2000 - 2449 grams   
   36 weeks gestation (32–36)d 1 (1.3) (1.8)
   37–41 weeks gestation 4 (5.1) (1.5)
   2500 grams - 3999   
   37–41 weeks gestation 58 (74.4) (78.3)
   4000 grams plus   
   37 plus weeks gestation 15 (19.2) (15.8)
Sex   
 Male 40 (51.3) (51.5)
 Female 38 (48.7) (48.5)
  1. aMultiple methods of analgesia/anaesthesia included.
  2. bIntramuscular (IM) or Intravenous (IV).
  3. cPerinatal Data range is 4–6 for State of Queensland.
  4. dPerinatal Data range is 32–36 weeks gestation for State of Queensland.