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Table 4 Breastfeeding characteristics and practices of the women involved in this study

From: Case–control study of risk factors for infectious mastitis in Spanish breastfeeding women

Variables Case, n* (%) Control, n* (%) OR 95% CI P-value
First breastfeed after birth      
  Not immediately 104 (28.42) 24 (16.44) Reference   0.005
  Immediately 262 (71.58) 122 (83.56) 0.50 0.30–0.81  
Problems to latch on the nipple at first     
  No 250 (67.93) 125 (85.03) Reference   < 0.001
  Yes 118 (32.07) 22 (14.97) 2.68 1.62–4.44  
Time until the milk come in      
  Hours 50 (13.77) 42 (29.17) Reference   < 0.001
  One day 66 (18.18) 27 (18.75) 2.05 1.12–3.77  
  Several days 247 (68.04) 75 (52.08) 2.77 1.70–4.49  
Breast milk amount      
  Normal 185 (50.27) 94 (63.95) Reference   0.006
  Oversupply 139 (37.77) 48 (31.29) 1.54 1.01–2.33  
  Low supply 44 (11.96) 7 (4.76) 3.19 1.39–7.36  
Types of breastfeeding  
  Mixed 272 (75.35) 14 (9.52) Reference   < 0.001
  Exclusive 89 (24.65) 133 (90.48) 0.32 0.18–0.59  
Breastfeeding twins / Tandem nursing     
  No 349 (96.41) 126 (87.50) Reference   < 0.001
  Yes 13 (3.59) 18 (12.50) 0.26 0.12–0.55  
Breastfeeding positions      
  1 48 (13.30) 22 (15.28) 1.05 0.60–1.86 0.043
  2 170 (47.09) 82 (56.94) Reference   
  3 143 (39.61) 40 (27.78) 1.72 1.11–2.67  
Breastfeeding length
  5-15 min 71 (26.59) 36 (41.38) Reference   < 0.001
  15-30 min 112 (41.95) 38 (43.68) 1.49 0.87–2.58  
  30-45 min 37 (13.86) 8 (9.20) 2.35 0.99–5.56  
  > 45 min 47 (17.60) 5 (5.75) 4.77 1.74–13.03  
Time since breastfeeding started      
  < 2 weeks 31 (8.59) 3 (2.59) Reference   < 0.001
  2-4 weeks 61 (16.90) 8 (6.90) 0.74 0.18–2.98  
  1-3 months 161 (44.60) 22 (18.97) 0.71 0.20–2.51  
  3-6 months 52 (14.40) 51 (43.97) 0.10 0.03–0.34  
  6-12 months 30 (8.31) 15 (12.93) 0.19 0.05–0.74  
  > 12 months 26 (7.20) 17 (14.66) 0.15 0.04–0.56  
Breast preference      
  No 233 (64.19) 104 (71.23) Reference   0.129
  Yes 130 (35.81) 42 (28.77) 1.38 0.91–2.10  
Consecutive feeds start with same breast     
  No 331 (92.72) 137 (93.84) Reference   0.655
  Yes 26 (7.28) 9 (6.16) 1.20 0.55–2.62  
One or two breast in each session     
  1 138 (43.13) 54 (40.30) Reference   0.578
  2 182 (56.88) 80 (59.70) 0.89 0.59–1.34  
Child skips one breastfeed session     
  No 274 (96.14) 117 (99.15) Reference   0.195
  Yes 11 (3.86) 1 (0.85) 4.70 0.60–36.80  
Pacifier      
  No 235 (66.38) 112 (75.68) Reference   0.040
  Yes 119 (33.62) 36 (24.32) 1.58 1.02–2.44  
Nipple shields      
  No 291 (82.20) 141 (95.27) Reference   < 0.001
  Yes 63 (17.80) 7 (4.73) 4.36 1.95–9.77  
Bottle-feeding      
  No 260 (73.45) 136 (91.89) Reference   < 0.001
  Yes 94 (26.55) 12 (8.11) 4.10 2.17–7.74  
Flat or inverted nipples      
  No 323 (91.24) 147 (99.32) Reference   0.002
  Yes 31 (8.76) 1 (0.68) 14.11 1.91–104.34  
Cream on nipples      
  No 171 (47.63) 108 (75.52) Reference   < 0.001
  Yes 188 (52.37) 35 (24.48) 3.39 2.20–5.24  
Breast pumps      
  No 143 (39.29) 101 (69.18) Reference   < 0.001
  Yes 221 (60.71) 45 (30.82) 3.47 2.30–5.22  
Breast pads      
  No 116 (32.77) 56 (38.89) Reference   0.193
  Yes 238 (67.23) 88 (61.11) 1.31 0.87–1.95  
Brassier use      
  Day and night 170 (48.99) 72 (54.96) Reference   0.244
  Only day 177 (51.01) 59 (45.04) 1.27 0.85–1.90  
Cracked nipples ( 15 ) **      
  1 73 (19.84) 77 (52.03) Reference   < 0.001
  2 42 (11.41) 26 (17.57) 1.70 0.95–3.06  
  3 50 (13.59) 12 (8.11) 4.39 2.17–8.91  
  4 43 (11.68) 9 (6.08) 5.04 2.30–11.07  
  5 160 (43.48) 24 (16.22) 7.03 4.02–12.01  
Antibiotics during breastfeeding      
  No 207 (56.71) 126 (85.71) Reference   < 0.001
  Yes 158 (43.29) 21 (14.29) 4.58 2.76–7.60  
Antifungal medication during breastfeeding     
  No 280 (76.71) 132 (89.80) Reference   < 0.001
  Yes 85 (23.29) 15 (10.20) 2.67 1,49–4,80  
Analgesics during breastfeeding      
  No 217 (58.97) 109 (73.65) Reference   < 0.001
  Yes 151 (41.03) 39 (26.35) 1.94 1.28–2.96  
Non - steroidal anti - inflammatory drugs     
  No 218 (59.24) 119 (80.41) Reference   < 0.001
  Yes 150 (40.76) 29 (19.59) 2.82 1.79–4.45  
Corticosteroids      
  No 355 (96.47) 146 (98.65) Reference   0.297
  Yes 13 (3.53) 2 (1.35) 2.67 0.60–11.99  
  1. OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval.
  2. *The number of cases varies because of missing data.
  3. **Cracked nipples were rated from 1 (no cracked) to 5 (severely cracked).