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Table 3 Adjusted means of posttraumatic stress symptoms following childbirth in four different match/mismatch groups

From: The influence of women’s preferences and actual mode of delivery on post-traumatic stress symptoms following childbirth: a population-based, longitudinal study

  Covariates Adjusted means and difference test of posttraumantic stress symptoms
Variable ηp 2 F Match 1 Match 2 Mismatch 1 Mismatch 2 F Post hocb
(Time point of measurement)    No preference, no ElCSa Preference, ElCS No preference, ElCS Preference, no ElCS
    Model 1 (covariates from each block included simultaneously)
Psychological Factors    6.56 5.97 7.25 8.73 3.17* 1-4*
Prior PTSD (pregnancy week 17) 0.004 6.33*       
Prior Sexual Abusec (8 weeks postpartum) 0.002 3.89*       
Fear of childbirth (pregnancy week 32) 0.019 32.76***       
Depression (pregnancy week 32) 0.015 26.05***       
Anxiety (pregnancy week 32) 0.013 22.77***       
Personality    6.38 7.61 7.97 10.08 8.55*** 1-4***
Neuroticism (pregnancy week 17) 0.044 78.73***       
Conscientiousness (pregnancy week 17) 0.006 10.22**       
Somatic & Demographic Factors    6.32 8.35 8.19 10.43 10.88*** 1-4***
Parity (pregnancy week 17) 0.012 20.41***       
Age (perinatally) 0.003 5.77*       
Education (perinatally) 0.002 4.24*       
    Model 2 (all statistically significant covariates included simultaneously)
All covariates    6.54 6.69 7.46 8.56 2.66* 1-4*
Prior PTSD (pregnancy week 17) 0.002 3.98*       
Prior Sexual Abuse (8 weeks postpartum) 0.002 2.87       
Fear of childbirth (pregnancy week 32) 0.012 20.85***       
Depression (pregnancy week 32) 0.016 26.55***       
Anxiety (pregnancy week 32) 0.010 17.74***       
Neuroticism (pregnancy week 17) 0.001 1.80       
Conscientiousness (pregnancy week 17) 0.001 1.11       
Parity (pregnancy week 17) 0.013 22.13***       
Age (perinatally) 0.001 1.17       
Education (perinatally) 0.000 0.69       
  1. aElective Cesarean Section.
  2. bBonferroni post-hoc tests are used ; 1–4 = significant differences between Match 1 and Mismatch 2.
  3. *p < .05, **p < .01, ***p < .001.
  4. cPrior sexual abuse, medical risk, parity and education are dichotomous variables, means are therefore indicating proportions.