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Table 2 Demographic characteristics of participants in phases three, four, and five 1

From: Quality of prenatal care questionnaire: instrument development and testing

Characteristic Phase three Phase four Phase five
Item reduction Validity & reliability Temporal stability
  N = 422 N = 422 N = 234
  n (%) n (%) n (%)
Recruitment Site
Vancouver 82 (19.4) 64 (15.2) 9 (3.8)
Calgary 98 (23.2) 61 (14.5) 79 (33.8)
Winnipeg 77 (18.3) 112 (26.5) 67 (28.6)
Hamilton 86 (20.4) 106 (25.1) 79 (33.8)
Halifax 79 (18.7) 79 (18.7) 0*
Marital Status
Married 281 (66.6) 284 (67.3) 168 (70.9)
Common-law 49 (11.6) 74 (17.5) 35 (14.8)
Living with a partner 10 (2.4) 15 (3.6) 13 (5.5)
Single (never married) 30 (7.1) 45 (10.7) 16 (6.8)
Separated or divorced 2 (0.5) 1 (0.2) 2 (0.8)
Household Income
Below $10,000 21 (5.0) 25 (5.9) 13 (5.5)
$10,000 to $19,999 20 (4.7) 40 (9.5) 11 (4.6)
$20,000 to $39,999 43 (10.2) 50 (11.8) 29 (12.2)
$40,000 to $59,999 56 (13.3) 65 (15.4) 27 (11.4)
$60,000 to $79,999 70 (16.6) 48 (11.4) 33 (13.9)
$80,000 and above 199 (47.2) 179 (42.4) 114 (48.1)
Highest Level of Education
Less than high school 35 (8.3) 34 (8.0) 16 (6.8)
Completed high school 40 (9.5) 54 (12.8) 19 (8.0)
Some community college or technical school 40 (9.5) 31 (7.3) 24 (10.1)
Completed community college or technical school 93 (22.0) 92 (21.8) 41 (17.3)
Some university 39 (9.2) 39 (9.2) 20 (8.4)
Completed bachelor’s degree 122 (28.9) 107 (25.4) 77 (32.5)
Graduate degree 52 (12.3) 63 (14.9) 36 (15.2)
Racial/Ethnic Background
White 316 (74.9) 291 (69.0) 174 (73.4)
Aboriginal 14 (3.3) 23 (5.5) 17 (7.2)
Black 13 (3.1) 4 (0.9) 3 (1.3)
Chinese 18 (4.3) 15 (3.6) 9 (3.8)
Filipino 18 (4.3) 27 (6.4) 4 (1.7)
Latin American 8 (1.9) 5 (1.2) 5 (2.1)
South Asian 13 (3.1) 7 (1.7) 6 (2.5)
Other 18 (4.3) 40 (9.5) 16 (6.8)
Born in Canada
Yes 324 (76.8) 318 (75.4) 191 (80.6)
No 92 (21.8) 102 (24.2) 42 (17.7)
Language Spoken Most Often at Home
English 352 (83.4) 352 (83.4) 205 (86.5)
French 8 (1.9) 5 (1.2) 1 (0.4)
Chinese 9 (2.1) 7 (1.7) 4 (1.7)
Tagalog (Filipino) 3 (0.7) 13 (3.1) 2 (0.8)
Other 32 (7.6) 24 (5.7) 13 (5.6)
Prenatal Care Provider**    
Family physician 254 (60.0) 253 (60.0) 149 (62.9)
Obstetrician 270 (64.0) 281 (66.6) 158 (66.7)
Midwife 46 (11.0) 39 (9.2) 27 (11.4)
Nurse practitioner 30 (7.0) 56 (13.3) 45 (19.0)
Site of Prenatal Care
Private office 211 (50.0) 165 (39.1) 73 (30.8)
Clinic 175 (41.5) 201 (47.6) 87 (36.7)
Outpatient department of a hospital 28 (6.6) 42 (10.0) 47 (19.8)
Type of Delivery***
Vaginal 289 (68.5) 318 (75.4) 154 (65.0)
Planned C-section 62 (14.7) 47 (11.1) 12 (5.1)
Unplanned C-section 71 (16.8) 55 (13.0) 28 (11.8)
Parity***
Primipara 169 (40.0) 157 (37.2) 113 (48.3)
Multipara 239 (56.6) 248 (58.8) 103 (40.0)
Maternal Health
Chronic health problem 49 (11.6) 37 (8.8) 37 (15.6)
Complication during pregnancy 104 (24.6) 100 (23.7) 39 (16.7)
Medical problem since delivery 20 (4.7) 18 (4.3) 21 (8.9)
Infant***
Boy 224 (53.1) 194 (46.0) 87 (36.7)
Girl 198 (46.9) 227 (53.8) 106 (44.7)
Variable Mean ( SD ) Mean ( SD ) Mean ( SD )
Maternal age (years) 30.2 (5.3) 30.2 (5.1) 29.7 (4.8)
Gestational age at first prenatal care visit (weeks) 10.9 (9.0) 10.6 (5.8) 10.2 (5.4)
Gestational age at delivery (weeks)*** 39.2 (1.4) 39.3 (2.0) 39.6 (1.2)
Birth weight of infant (grams)*** 3406.3 (544.3) 3465.9 (496.3) 3506.8 (472.2)
  1. 1Missing responses were excluded from analyses.
  2. *Halifax did not participate in Phase Five of the study.
  3. **Percentages reported for prenatal care providers do not add to 100 as women were instructed to check off all that applied.
  4. ***In Phase Five, responses for these items are reported for Time 2 participants (n = 194 postpartum women).