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Table 1 Characteristics of subjects and test of difference between specified categories

From: No consensus on gestational diabetes mellitus screening regimes in Sweden: pregnancy outcomes in relation to different screening regimes 2011 to 2012, a cross-sectional study

Variablesa All subjects 2011-2012 N (%) Subjects 2011 n (%) Subjects 2012 n (%) OGTT 2011-2012 N (%) GDM 2011-2012 N (%)
Maternal (yrs) 184130 (99.8) 88016 (99.7) 96025 (99.9) 38302 (99.8) 2579 (99.8)
Mean(SD) 30.25 (5.3) 30.27 (5.3) 30.23 (5.3) 30.36 (5.4) 31.86 (5.5)
Min-Max 13-57 13-53 13-57 15-54 16-53
Maternal age      
≤19 2688 (1.5) 1369 (1.6) 1319 (1.4) 469 (17.6) 23 (0.9)
20-24 25212 (13.7) 11990 (13.8) 13222 (13.8) 5293 (21.2) 239 (1.0)
25-29 53971 (29.3) 25570 (29.0) 28393 (29.6) 11257 (21.0) 618 (1.1)
30-34 61706 (33.5) 29463 (33.4) 32243 (33.6) 12432 (20.3) 837 (1.4)
35-39 33225 (18.0) 16215 (18.4) 17010 (17.7) 7130 (21.5) 642 (1.9)
≥40 738 (4.0) 3490 (4.0) 3838 (4.0) 1748 (24.0) 220 (3.0)
Parity 181292 (98.4) 86189 (96.0) 95103 (98.2) 37603(96.8) 2548 (97.3)
1 79250 (43.7) 37569 (43.6) 41681 (43.8) 15493 (19.7) 949 (1.2
2 67902 (37.5) 32340 (37.5) 35562 (37.4) 14130 (20.9) 861 (1.3)
≥3 34140 (18.8) 16280 (18.9) 17860 (18.8) 7980 (22.8) 738 (2.9)
Gest age bc 180822 (98.2) 86434 (97.9) 94388 (98.1) 37684 (97.2) 2513 (97.6)
Pre-term 9838 (5.4) 4689 (5.4) 5149 (5.5) 1914 (19.6) 209 (2.1)
Term 156599 (86.6) 74874 (86.6) 81725 (86.6) 32714 (21.0) 2208 (1.4)
Post-term 14385 (8.0) 6871 (8.0) 7514 (8.0) 3056 (21.4) 96 (0.7)
Weight (kg) 179343 (97.4) 85359 (97.9) 93984 (97.9) 37062 (96.8) 2510 (97.3)
Mean (SD) 68.50 (13.7) 68.40 (13.6) 68.59 (13.7) 75.45 (17.7) 7704 (18.6)
Min-Max 29-183 29-183 30-183 36-183 40-163
Height (cm) 180124 (97.8) 85764 (97.3) 94360 (98.2) 37762 (97.3) 2519 (97.7)
Mean (SD) 166.2 (6.5) 166.2 (6.5) 166.2 (6.5) 166.2 (6.6) 163.8 (6.8)
Min-Max 113-196 113-193 113-196 133-195 133-187
BMI (kg/m 2 ) d 178723 (97.0) 85046 (97.5)   36967 (96.8) 2496(96.8)
Mean (SD) 24.78 (4.6) 24.74 (4.6) 24.82 (4.7) 27.29 (6.1) 28.70 (6.3)
Min-max 13.6-62.6 13.8-62.1 13.6-60.0 13.6-62.1) 16.0-60.0
BMI early pregnancy 178723 (97.0) 85046 (97.5) 93677 (96.7) 36967 (96.5) 2496(96.8)
<18.5 4329 (2.4) 2031 (2.4) 2298 (2.5) 586 (13.6) 23 (0.5)
18.5-24.99 1056679(59.1) 50622(59.5) 55057 (58.8) 15633 (14.9) 789 (0.7)
25-29.99 45667 (25.6) 21641 (25.4) 24026 (25.6) 9285 (20.4) 754 (1.7)
30-34.99 16126 (9.0) 7537 (8.8) 8589 (9.2) 6793 (42.4) 511 (3.2)
35-39.99 5117 (2.9) 2379 (2.8) 2738 (2.9) 3327 (65.7) 285 (5.8)
≥40 1805 (1.0) 836 (1.0) 969 (1.0) 1313 (73.3) 134 (7.4)
Educational level 151600 (82.3) 70638 (79.5) 80962 (84.0) 32183 (82.3) 2003 (76.5)
Elementary school 13532 (8.9) 6662 (9.4) 6870 (8.5) 3239 (24.1) 309 (2.4)
High school 60481 (39.9) 27821 (39.4) 32660 (40.3) 14263 (23.7) 904 (1.5)
University 77587 (51.2) 36155 (51.2) 41432 (51.2) 14681 (19.0) 790 (1.0)
Employment status 179628 (97.5) 85165 (94.6) 94463 (98.0) 37330 (96.1) 2501 (95.6)
Employede 159566 (88.8) 75669 (88.8) 83897 (88.8) 32805 (21.9) 2057 (1.6)
Unemployedf 20062 (11.2) 9496 (11.2) 10566 (11.2) 4525 (22.9) 444 (2.4)
Country of origin 184132 (100) 88140 (100) 96043 (100) 38308 (97.6) 2579 (97.2)
Sweden 144563 (78.5) 70376 (79.8) 74187 (77.2) 29637 (20.6) 1613 (1.1)
Nordic countriesg 1445 (0.8) 613 (0.7) 832 (0.9) 350 (24.6) 23 (1.7)
Other countries 34134 (18.5) 17151 (19.5) 21024 (21.9) 8318 (22.4) 943 (2.8)
Visits at ANC h 182137 (98.9) 86822 (98.6) 95315 (99.2) 37917(99.0) 2534 (98.3)
Mean: 8.8 (2.4) 8.8 (2.4) 8.7 (2.7) 9.0 (2.4) 9.3 (3.0)
Max-min: 1-29 2-26 1-24 1-29 1-26
SRH i 153227 (83.2) 70633 (79.1) 82594 (85.7) 32442 (83.3) 2102 (80.3)
Very good 44310 (28.9) 19838 (28.1) 24472 (29.6) 8484 (19.2) 422 (1.0)
Good 89740 (58.6) 41299 (58.5) 48441 (58.6) 19650 (22.0) 1317 (1.5)
Either good or poor 13755 (9.0) 6793 (9.6) 6962 (8.4) 3142 (23.0) 260 (1.9)
Poor 4371 (2.9) 2174 (3.1) 2197 (2.7) 950 (21.8) 82 (1.9)
Very poor 1051 (0.7) 529 (0.7) 522 (0.6) 216 (20.7) 21 (2.0)
Smoking 3 months j 182532 (99.1) 75316 (98.8) 81797 (99.2) 38305 (97.5) 2579(97.6)
No smoking 157113 (85.2) 75316 (85.5) 81797 (86.1) 31718 (20.3) 2167(1.4)
Smoking 25419 (14.8) 12134 (14.5) 13285 (13.9) 5976 (23.7) 387 (1.6)
Smoking first visit 182619 (99.0) 84134 (94.2) 96043 (98.5) 38305 (97.6) 2579 (97.6)
No smoking 172082 (94.3) 82451 (94.2) 89631 (94.1) 35139 (20.5) 2380 (1.5)
Smoking 10537 (5.7) 5062 (5.7) 5475 (5.9) 2578 (24.6) 174 (1.7)
  1. aFor each specified variable, n and% are presented.
  2. bGestational age calculated using the WHO’s guidelines.
  3. cPre-term = 22 + 0-36 + 6, Term = 37 + 0-41 + 6, Post-term = 42 + 0–43 + 6 (weeks).
  4. dBody mass index (BMI).
  5. eEmployed includes employed, student, and parental leave.
  6. fUnemployed includes unemployed, sick leave, and other.
  7. gNorway, Denmark, Finland, and Iceland.
  8. hAntenatal care unit (ANC).
  9. iSelf-rated health (SRH).
  10. jSmoking three months before pregnancy.