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Table 2 Associations between social support and postpartum depression among Canadian mothers in 2006–2007 maternity experiences survey (N = 6,304)

From: The effect of social support around pregnancy on postpartum depression among Canadian teen mothers and adult mothers in the maternity experiences survey

Independent variables Unadjusted odds ratio Adjusted odds ratio
OR (95% CI)‡ OR (95% CI)‡
Social support around pregnancy   
Overall support during pregnancy   
   All of the time 1.00 1.00
   Most of the time 2.25 (1.79-2.82) 1.27 (0.95-1.69)
   None/Little/Some of the time 4.39 (3.39-5.68) 1.31 (0.91-1.91)
Overall support after birth   
   All of the time 1.00 1.00
   Most of the time 2.49 (1.90-3.26) 2.11 (1.51-2.95)
   None/Little/Some of the time 8.02 (6.17-10.44) 5.10 (3.51-7.36)
Socio-demographic characteristics   
Age   
   Teen mother (15–19 years) 1.00 1.00
   Adult mother (20+ years) 0.47 (0.33-0.68) 0.56 (0.36-0.89)
Urban–rural residence   
   Rural area 1.00 1.00
   Urban, population ≤499,999 1.00 (0.73-1.36) 0.98 (0.69-1.37)
   Urban, population ≥500,000 1.56 (1.17-2.07) 1.36 (0.99-1.88)
Immigration to Canada   
   No 1.00 1.00
   Yes 2.19 (1.75-2.74) 1.92 (1.44-2.57)
Level of education   
   High school or less 1.00 1.00
   Some postsecondary education 0.60 (0.47-0.75) 0.75 (0.56-1.01)
   Undergraduate education 0.54 (0.40-0.72) 0.72 (0.50-1.02)
   Graduate education 0.49 (0.32-0.76) 0.54 (0.33-0.88)
Partner/Significant other   
   No 1.00 1.00
   Yes 0.54 (0.41-0.72) 0.77 (0.55-1.08)
Previous depression diagnosis   
   No 1.00 1.00
   Yes 2.46 (1.96-3.08) 2.44 (1.88-3.17)
Pregnancy-related characteristics   
Wanted the pregnancy   
   Then or Sooner 1.00 1.00
   Later or Not at all 1.78 (1.45-2.19) 1.23 (0.96-1.58)
Health problems during pregnancy   
   No 1.00 1.00
   Yes 1.56 (1.26-1.94) 1.45 (1.13-1.87)
Work during pregnancy   
   No 1.00 1.00
   Yes 1.43 (1.05-1.93) 1.47 (1.01-2.12)
Cigarette smoking during pregnancy   
   No 1.00 1.00
   Yes 1.61 (1.23-2.11) 1.22 (0.87-1.71)
Alcohol use during pregnancy   
   No 1.00 1.00
   Yes 1.15 (0.83-1.59) 1.10 (0.76-1.59)
Drug use during pregnancy   
   No 1.00 1.00
   Yes 4.89 (2.66-8.98) 2.39 (1.08-5.26)
Delivery characteristics   
Type of delivery   
   Vaginal 1.00 1.00
   Caesarean 0.92 (0.74-1.16) 0.90 (0.69-1.16)
Birth setting   
   Hospital/clinic 1.00 1.00
   Birthing centre/private/home/other 1.16 (0.51-2.66) 1.24 (0.50-3.12)
General experience in labour and birth   
   Negative 1.00 1.00
   Positive 0.63 (0.46-0.85) 0.77 (0.55-1.08)
   Neither 0.62 (0.40-0.95) 0.73 (0.45-1.21)
Postpartum characteristics   
Mother’s hospitalization after birth   
   No 1.00 1.00
   Yes 1.84 (1.17-2.88) 1.66 (0.98-2.82)
Work after pregnancy   
   No 1.00 1.00
   Yes 0.72 (0.52-1.00) 0.81 (0.56-1.16)
Enough information on PPD   
   No 1.00 1.00
   Yes 0.26 (0.20-0.33) 0.38 (0.28-0.51)
  1. ‡95% CIs calculated using bootstrapping technique.
  2. OR = odds ratio; 95% CI = 95% confidence interval.