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Table 1 Overall characteristics of Canadian teen mothers and adult mothers in 2006–2007 maternity experiences survey (N = 6,304)

From: The effect of social support around pregnancy on postpartum depression among Canadian teen mothers and adult mothers in the maternity experiences survey

Characteristics Teen mothers Adult mothers All mothers P-value‡
N (%) N (%) N (%)
Outcome variable     
Postpartum depression     <0.001
   No 160 (86.0) 5,676 (92.8) 5836 (92.6)  
   Yes 26 (14.0) 442 (7.2) 468 (7.4)  
Social support around pregnancy     
Overall support during pregnancy     0.035
   All of the time 187 (65.0) 3,443 (57.4) 3630 (57.7)  
   Most of the time 67 (23.1) 1,791 (29.8) 1858 (29.5)  
   None/Little/Some of the time 34 (11.9) 768 (12.8) 802 (12.8)  
Overall support after birth     0.003
   All of the time 173 (60.4) 3,067 (51.0) 3240 (51.5)  
   Most of the time 68 (23.7) 1,997 (33.3) 2065 (32.8)  
   None/Little/Some of the time 46 (15.9) 943 (15.7) 989 (15.7)  
Socio-demographic characteristics     
Age     
   Teen mother (15–19 years) N/A N/A 186 (3.0)  
   Adult mother (20+ years) N/A N/A 6118 (97.0)  
Urban–rural residence     <0.001
   Rural area 51 (18.8) 1,042 (17.9) 1093 (17.9)  
   Urban, population ≤499,999 136 (50.2) 2,145 (36.8) 2281 (37.4)  
   Urban, population ≥500,000 84 (31.0) 2,644 (45.3) 2728 (44.7)  
Immigration to Canada     
   No N/A N/A 4953 (78.4)  
   Yes N/A N/A 1362 (21.6)  
Level of education     
   High school or less N/A N/A 1307 (20.8)  
   Some postsecondary education N/A N/A 2743 (43.6)  
   Undergraduate education N/A N/A 1617 (25.7)  
   Graduate education N/A N/A 619 (9.9)  
Partner/Significant other     <0.001
   No 137 (48.2) 427 (7.1) 564 (9.0)  
   Yes 148 (51.8) 5,576 (92.9) 5724 (91.0)  
Previous depression diagnosis     
   No N/A N/A 5350 (84.6)  
   Yes N/A N/A 977 (15.4)  
Pregnancy-related characteristics     
Wanted the pregnancy     <0.001
   Then or Sooner 77 (27.1) 4,443 (74.3) 4520 (72.2)  
   Later or Not at all 207 (72.9) 1,534 (25.7) 1741 (27.8)  
Health problems during pregnancy     0.822
   No 216 (74.9) 4,536 (75.5) 4752 (75.5)  
   Yes 72 (25.1) 1,473 (24.5) 1545 (24.5)  
Work during pregnancy     <0.001
   No 226 (79.4) 5,450 (90.8) 5676 (90.2)  
   Yes 59 (20.6) 555 (9.2) 614 (9.8)  
Cigarette smoking during pregnancy     <0.001
   No 205 (71.1) 5,411 (90.0) 5616 (89.1)  
   Yes 83 (28.9) 601 (10.0) 684 (10.9)  
Alcohol use during pregnancy     
   No N/A N/A 5638 (89.4)  
   Yes N/A N/A 668 (10.6)  
Drug use during pregnancy     
   No N/A N/A 6263 (99.0)  
   Yes N/A N/A 63 (1.0)  
Delivery characteristics     
Type of delivery     0.025
   Vaginal 230 (79.8) 4,424 (73.6) 4654 (73.9)  
   Caesarean 58 (20.2) 1,586 (26.4) 1644 (26.1)  
Birth setting     
   Hospital/clinic N/A N/A 6207 (98.0)  
   Birthing centre/private/other N/A N/A 129 (2.0)  
General experience in labour & birth     
   Negative N/A N/A 578 (9.2)  
   Positive N/A N/A 5058 (80.2)  
   Neither N/A N/A 671 (10.6)  
Postpartum characteristics     
Mother’s hospitalization after birth     <0.001
   No 265 (92.0) 5,828 (96.9) 6093 (96.7)  
   Yes 23 (8.0) 188 (3.1) 211 (3.3)  
Work after pregnancy     
   No N/A N/A 5461 (86.4)  
   Yes N/A N/A 861 (13.6)  
Enough information on PPD     0.174
   No 30 (10.5) 478 (7.9) 508 (8.1)
   Yes 257 (89.5) 5,535 (92.1) 5792 (91.9)
  1. ‡p-value calculated using bootstrapping technique.
  2. N/A – Not Available - Data not allowed for release due to cell count less than 5.