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Table 2 Distribution of births according to maternal, socioeconomic and demographic factors – 1997/98 and 2010 São Luís birth cohorts

From: Low birth weight in São Luís, northeastern Brazil: trends and associated factors

Variables São Luís 1997/98 São Luís 2010 p*
n= 2.426 n=5.040
n % n %
Maternal age (years)      <0.001
 < 18 317 13.1 437 8.7  
 18 – 19 396 16.3 504 10.0  
 20 – 34 1612 66.4 3713 73.7  
 ≥ 35 101 4.2 486 7.6  
Maternal schooling (years)      <0.001
 0 - 4 416 17.1 227 4.5  
 5 - 8 1031 42.5 1122 22.3  
 9 - 11 860 35.5 2920 57.9  
 ≥12 119 4.9 758 11.0  
 Missing - - 13 0.3  
Marital status      <0.001
 Married 702 28.9 1101 21.8  
 Consensual union 1137 46.9 2981 59.2  
 Without a companion 587 24.2 958 19.0  
Family income (minimum wages)      <0.001
 ≤1 398 16.4 736 14.6  
 1- 3 837 34.5 2040 40.5  
 >3 1032 42.5 1362 27.0  
 Missing 159 6.6 902 17.9  
Maternal smoking during pregnancy      0.212
 No 2322 95.7 4854 96.3  
 Yes 104 4.3 186 3.7  
Occupation of the family head      0.001
 Non-manual 500 20.6 1036 20.5  
 Skilled manual worker 1094 45.1 2050 40.7  
 Unskilled manual worker 767 31.6 1789 35.5  
 Missing 65 2.7 165 3.3  
Parity      0.627
 1 1181 48.7 2404 47.7  
 2 720 29.7 1549 30.7  
 ≥3 525 21.6 1087 21.6  
Adequacy of prenatal care use      <0.001
 Adequate 1245 51.3 2988 59.3  
 Inadequate 947 39.1 1700 33.7  
 No care 199 8.2 95 1.9  
 Missing 35 1.4 257 5.1  
Category of delivery care      <0.001
 Private 268 11.0 801 15.9  
 Public 2158 89.0 4239 84.1  
Type of delivery      <0.001
 Vaginal 1608 66.3 2675 53.1  
 Cesarean 818 34.7 2365 47.9  
  1. *p-value calculated by the Pearson chi-square test.