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Table 4 Probability of caesarean section given selected pregnancy and intrapartum conditions

From: Regional variation in caesarean deliveries in Germany and its causes

  Former East Germany Former West Germany By year By region
  2004a 2005 2006f 2004a 2005 2006f   
Diagnosesb % % % % % % p-valuee p-valuee
Twins and higher order pregnancies 71.85 71.38 68.28 75.30 74.42 74.34 0.3512 0.0118
Anomalies of the fetal presentation 76.72 74.41 75.83 79.15 79.56 78.83 0.4934 <.0001
Intrauterine growth restriction 47.96 44.55 42.88 52.91 51.58 50.67 0.0259 <.0001
Post date pregnancy 18.58 17.88 19.96 24.73 24.96 25.80 0.0303 <.0001
Preterm delivery 50.49 46.55 46.63 54.25 54.34 55.44 0.7540 <.0001
Maternal distress 46.67 39.33 45.22 57.63 60.29 55.81 0.6702 <.0001
Obstructed labour 54.01 52.51 49.40 53.54 54.39 54.73 0.8577 0.3510
Asphyxia 31.08 29.07 29.75 36.92 36.54 37.24 0.9664 <.0001
Prolonged birth 44.84 45.66 50.08 48.84 49.63 50.60 0.0030 0.0009
Macrosomia 48.82 45.97 46.58 54.38 57.74 48.67 0.0014 0.0011
Placenta praevia 93.22 82.19 82.50 87.95 86.68 87.47 0.3814 0.4586
Abruptio placentae 87.65 85.86 82.28 84.28 86.68 86.85 0.5091 0.8071
Disproportion 80.59 79.42 80.00 83.23 82.10 81.98 0.2338 0.0476
Anomalies of maternal pelvis 64.46 67.41 69.80 77.69 78.74 78.79 0.0023 <.0001
Intrapartal bleeding (excluding placenta praevia) 52.73 64.15 50.67 51.55 50.11 57.18 0.1732 0.5729
Failed induction 63.80 70.30 71.07 82.11 86.05 86.88 0.0029 <.0001
Preexisting hypertonic disorders 49.21 41.56 49.30 63.25 52.06 54.40 0.0932 0.0115
Non-severe hypertonic disorders during pregnancy 38.85 36.15 36.57 48.93 47.59 48.01 0.3590 <.0001
Preeclampsia 57.39 50.85 57.12 61.49 63.40 65.15 0.0278 <.0001
Eclampsia 67.86 57.14 57.14 68.75 77.14 69.15 0.8089 0.1219
Complications because of umbilical cord 16.06 15.25 17.48 18.79 18.78 20.04 0.0254 <.0001
Diabetes mellitus 50.00 55.07 58.49 60.21 56.70 59.79 0.7618 0.2409
Gestational diabetes mellitus 32.60 33.83 34.09 41.21 40.99 42.09 0.4453 <.0001
Uterine rupture 93.10 88.89 94.12 89.10 88.73 91.94 0.3597 0.5007
Premature rupture of foetal membranes (PROM) 21.98 19.04 19.66 24.97 25.03 25.21 0.6226 <.0001
Abnorm contractions 18.19 13.91 18.27 19.00 17.37 17.10 0.0618 0.1223
Previous caesarean section 68.94 71.18 76.32 80.64 81.15 82.45 0.0003 <.0001
At least one strongc indication for caesarean section 77.96 75.51 76.71 80.32 80.31 79.86 0.2480 <.0001
At least one of the moderated indications for caesarean section 20.78 19.62 20.77 28.40 28.63 29.28 0.0080 <.0001
Patients with no indication of diagnoses which could justify caesarean section 4.04 4.26 4.82 8.17 7.91 8.19 0.5343 <.0001
  1. a Restricted to data from February till December.
  2. b The same patient could have several of the listed diagnoses.
  3. c As strong indications were classified: Placenta praevia, Abruptio placaente, uterine rupture, anomalies of foetal presentation and disproportion [11].
  4. d All indications listed in the table and not classified as strong were classified as moderate.
  5. e p-values obtained from logistic regression mutually adjusting for time trends and regional differences.
  6. f Restricted to births from January till November.