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Table 2 Ambulatory measurements

From: Need for insulin to control gestational diabetes is reflected in the ambulatory arterial stiffness index

  Controls GDM and diet GDM and insulin
Variable 1.visit 2.visit 1.visit 2.visit 1.visit 2.visit
mean ± SD (N = 32) (N = 27) (N = 42) (N = 25) (N = 10) (N = 6)
Systolic BP office (mmHg 109.1 ± 7.5 103.5 ± 7.8 ♦ 112.7 ± 10.4 111.9 ± 21.8 116.5 ± 15.9* 115.5 ± 12.1*
Diastolic BP office (mmHg) 68.9 ± 6.3 70.1 ± 5.7 70.1 ± 9.0 71.8 ± 8.7 75.0 ± 7.8* 79.8 ± 9.4*
Systolic BP whole 24 h (mmHg) 114.5 ± 7.0 112.0 ± 7.4 115.2 ± 9.0 113.8 ± 10.5 123.1±13.3†* 120.3 ± 6.0*
Diastolic BP whole 24 h (mmHg) 71.0 ± 5.9 71.7 ± 6.3 68.8 ± 7.4 69.8 ± 8.8 74.3 ± 8.4† 77.5 ± 6.6
Heart Rate 24 h (bpm) 81.8 ± 9.1 69.0 ± 8.6 ♦ 85.5 ± 10.6 72.9 ± 9.2♦ 80.6 ± 6.6 75.0 ± 6.8♦
Systolic BP daytime (mmHg) 117.7 ± 7.0 115.2 ± 7.4 119.3 ± 9.4 117.7 ± 10.5 125.8 ± 13.2* 123.8 ± 8.5*
Diastolic BP daytime (mmHg) 74.8 ± 5.7 75.3 ± 5.9 73.2 ± 8.0 73.9 ± 8.5 77.4 ± 8.2 81.0 ± 8.7
Heart rate daytime (bpm) 85.4 ± 9.6 73.5 ± 9.2 ♦ 89.4 ± 11.0 77.2 ± 9.2♦ 94.1 ± 6.9 78.8 ± 7.5♦
Systolic BP night (mmHg) 107.2 ± 8.0 105.7 ± 8.6 106.7 ± 9.3 106.1 ± 11.9 116.7± 15.0†* 115.7 ± 4.4*
Diastolic BP night (mmHg) 62.3 ± 7.2 64.7 ± 7.6 ♦ 59.6 ± 7.3 61.0 ± 10.0 67.0 ± 9.5† 72.3 ± 5.3 †*
Heart rate night (bpm) 73.3 ± 9.0 59.4 ± 9.0 ♦ 76.7 ± 10.5 63.5 ± 9.8♦ 72.9 ± 7.8 67.0 ± 9.4
Nocturnal syst. dipping (mmHg) 10.5 ± 4.3 9.4 ± 5.3 12.6 ± 5.7 11.8 ± 5.8 9.1 ± 5.3 8.2 ± 5.6
Nocturnal diast. dipping (mmHg) 12.6 ± 3.8 10.6 ± 4.2 ♦ 13.6 ± 4.7 12.8 ± 5.0 10.4 ± 5.9 8.7 ± 3.9
AASI 0.22 ± 0.13 0.21 ± 0.13 0.23 ± 0.12 0.17 ± 0.09♦ 0.29 ± 0.21 0.33 ± 0.09 †*
  1. 1. visit, during pregnancy, 2. Visit, three months after delivery. BP, blood pressure, AASI, ambulatory arterial stiffness index, bpm, beats per minute. *, significant difference when compared to the control group, †, significant difference when compared to the GDM diet group, ♦, significant difference when compared to 1.visit. Significant difference = p <0.05.