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Table 3 Perinatal outcomes according to units of alcohol intake reported at the first antenatal visit in pregnancy

From: Behavioural change in relation to alcohol exposure in early pregnancy and impact on perinatal outcomes - a prospective cohort study

Alcohol intake Non-drinker Low intake Excess intake / binge Low intake versus Non-drinker Excess intake / binge versus Non-drinker
(0 units) (1–5 units) (>5 units) Crude OR 9(5% CI) Crude OR (95% CI)
n= 708 (%) n= 270 (%) n= 99 (%) Adjusted iOR (95% CI) Adjusted iOR (95% CI)
Preterm birth < 37 weeks 53 (7.5) 14 (5.2) 10 (10.2) 0.67 (0.36-1.23) 1.62 (0.76-3.45)
0.51 (0.27-0.96)* 0.83 (0.37-1.82)
Very preterm birth < 32 weeks 11 (1.6) 1 (0.4) 3 (3.0) 0.23 (0.03-1.81) 1.99 (0.55-7.28)
0.17 (0.02-1.35) 1.35 (0.33-5.47)
Low birth weight < 2500g 41 (5.8) 13 (4.8) 9 (9.2) 0.81 (0.43-1.54) 1.62 (0.76-3.45)
0.60 (0.31-1.18) 1.00 (0.44-2.26)
Very low birth weight < 1000g 5 (0.7) 1 (0.4) 2 (2.0) 0.52 (0.06-4.43) 2.89 (0.55-15.09)
0.40 (0.04-3.70) 2.50 (0.41-15.11)
Intrauterine growth restriction ii 91 (12.9) 42 (15.6) 26 (26.5) 1.25 (0.84-1.86) 2.41 (1.47-3.98)*
1.04 (0.68-1.59) 1.43 (0.83-2.49)
Apgar score <3 at 1 minute 8 (1.1) 1 (0.4) 2 (2.0) 0.32 (0.04-2.60) 1.80 (0.38-8.59)
0.30 (0.04-2.50) 1.27 (0.24-6.78)
Apgar score <7 at 5 minutes 6 (0.8) 3 (1.1) 4 (4.0) 1.10 (0.18-2.67) 4.94 (1.37-17.83)*
1.09 (0.11-2.73) 2.34 (0.55-9.90)
Admitted to neonatal unit 43 (6.2) 10 (3.7) 10 (10.2) 0.62 (0.30-1.25) 1.82 (0.88-3.76)
0.47 (0.22-0.97)* 1.30 (0.59-2.85)
Congenital abnormality (any) 15 (2.1) 3 (1.1) 2 (2.0) 0.51 (0.15-1.78) 0.95 (0.21-4.21)
0.63 (0.18-2.28) 1.08 (0.23-5.13)
Perinatal death 5 (0.7) 1 (0.4) 1 (1.0) 0.52 (0.06-4.43) 1.43 (0.17-12.36)
0.61 (0.07-5.61) 1.28 (0.13-12.64)
  1. i Adjusted for maternal age, Irish nationality, unplanned pregnancy, private healthcare, smoker, illicit drug use.
  2. ii Customised birth weight < 10th percentile.
  3. * p<0.05.