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Table 8 Mean partner engagement score (95% confidence interval) and associated infant feeding patterns and breastfeeding problems, by parity

From: Fathers’ engagement in pregnancy and childbirth: evidence from a national survey

  Primiparous women Multiparous women
  Mean (95% CI) Adjusted* p Mean (95% CI) Adjusted* p
Tried to breastfeed at least once 7.18 (7.08, 7.29)   4.95 (4.85, 5.06)  
Never tried to breastfeed 6.36 (6.05, 6.66) 0.00 4.75 (4.53, 4.97) 0.05
Infant feeding in first few days     
Breastfeeding only 7.25 (7.13, 7.38)   4.95 (4.84, 5.06)  
Breast and formula 6.98 (6.76, 7.20)   4.91 (4.63, 5.20)  
Formula only 6.61 (6.35, 6.86) 0.00 4.76 (4.56, 4.97) 0.10
Infant feeding at 3 months     
Formula 6.89 (6.75, 7.03)   4.84 (4.71, 4.97)  
Breastfeeding 7.42 (7.25, 7.58)   4.97 (4.81, 5.13)  
Both formula and breast 7.06 (6.82, 7.30)   4.95 (4.70, 5.21)  
Other 7.67 (5.85, 9.38) 0.00 5.00 (2.68, 7.32) 0.31
Breastfeeding duration     
didn’t breastfeed 6.44 (6.17, 6.70)   4.82 (4.61, 5.03)  
1-20 days 7.12 (6.88, 7.36)   4.82 (4.58, 5.06)  
21-98 days 6.99 (6.76, 7.22)   4.90 (4.67, 5.13)  
still breastfeeding 7.30 (7.16, 7.43) 0.00 4.96 (4.83, 5.10) 0.25
Of those women breastfeeding: Breastfeeding problems at 10 days     
Yes 7.22 (7.06, 7.38)   5.11 (4.91, 5.31)  
No 7.20 (7.03, 7.37) 0.86 4.85 (4.71, 4.99) 0.03
  1. *Adjusted for maternal ethnicity, age, IMD. age on leaving full-time education, and father’s country of birth.