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Table 5 Mean partner engagement score (95% confidence interval) by a) socio-demographic factors and parity, and other factors during b) antenatal, c) intrapartum and d) postnatal periods

From: Fathers’ engagement in pregnancy and childbirth: evidence from a national survey

  Primiparous women Multiparous women
  Mean (95% CI) Adjusted*p Mean (95% CI) Adjusted*p
a) Sociodemographic factors
Mother’s ethnicity     
White 7.13 (7.03, 7.24)   4.93 (4.83, 5.02)  
BME 6.83 (6.50, 7.16) 0.93 4.83 (4.51, 5.14) 0.74
Index of multiple deprivation (quintile)     
1 7.30 (7.09, 7.52)   4.92 (4.74, 5.10)  
2 7.12 (6.90, 7.33)   4.96 (4.76, 5.16)  
3 7.18 (6.97, 7.39)   4.99 (4.77, 5.20)  
4 7.03 (6.80, 7.26)   4.88 (4.64, 5.12)  
5 6.82 (6.57, 7.08) 0.16 4.78 (4.54, 5.02) 0.42
Mother left full time education aged     
<16 yrs 6.77 (6.52, 7.03)   4.93 (4.79, 5.13)  
>/= 16 yrs 7.17 (7.06, 7.28) 0.01 4.91 (4.80, 5.01) 0.92
Age group (mother’s)     
<25 yrs 6.72 (6.48, 6.96)   5.33 (4.92, 5.73)  
25-34 yrs 7.21 (7.09, 7.33)   4.94 (4.81, 5.06)  
35+ yrs 7.09 (6.86, 7.33) 0.00 4.79 (4.64, 4.94) 0.01
Father’s country of birth     
UK 7.24 (7.13, 7.35)   4.94 (4.83, 5.04)  
Europe 6.01 (5.60, 6.42)   5.02 (4.52, 5.53)  
Rest of the world 6.78 (6.45, 7.11) 0.00 4.75 (4.45, 5.05) 0.48
Pregnancy planning     
Planned and happy pregnancy 7.24 (7.13, 7.35)   4.97 (4.87, 5.08)  
Unplanned but happy 6.77 (6.44, 7.11)   4.68 (4.34, 5.02)  
Unplanned and unhappy 6.19 (5.86, 6.53) 0.00 4.60 (4.30, 4.89) 0.02
b) Antenatal care factors     
Booking appointment     
Before 10 weeks 7.23 (7.11, 7.35)   5.06 (4.93, 5.19)  
Booking at/after 10 weeks 6.89 (6.70, 7.08) 0.33 4.69 (4.54, 4.84) 0.00
Gestation when healthcare professional 1 st seen     
<12 weeks 7.17 (7.07, 7.28)   4.95 (4.85, 5.05)  
12+ weeks 6.22 (5.79, 6.65) 0.01 4.58 (4.27, 4.89) 0.01
Number of antenatal checks     
0-5 6.60 (6.31, 6.89)   4.57 (4.36, 4.78)  
6-8 7.14 (6.97, 7.31)   4.76 (4.60, 4.92)  
9-10 7.07 (6.86, 7.27)   5.10 (4.88, 5.32)  
11 or more 7.29 (7.12, 7.45) 0.05 5.22 (5.04, 5.41) 0.00
Dating scan done 7.13 (7.03, 7.23)   4.95 (4.84, 5.05)  
No dating scan 6.73 (6.37, 7.09) 0.05 4.62 (4.32, 4.92) 0.02
Antenatal classes     
Offered 7.20 (7.10, 7.30)   5.03 (4.89, 5.16)  
Not offered 6.27 (5.96, 6.58) 0.01 4.79 (4.66, 4.92) 0.02
Attended 7.48 (7.36, 7.60)   5.72 (5.39, 6.06)  
Not attended 6.53 (6.36, 6.70) 0.00 4.85 (4.72, 4.96) 0.00
Number of antenatal health problems     
0,1 7.02 (6.86, 7.18)   4.75 (4.59, 4.91)  
2,3 7.21 (7.05, 7.36)   4.84 (4.69, 4.98)  
4+ 7.01 (6.79, 7.22 0.18 5.14 (4.96, 5.32) 0.01
Worries about labour     
low 7.21 (6.93, 7.48)   4.70 (4.54, 4.87)  
low-medium 7.08 (6.86, 7.30)   5.00 (4.83, 5.18)  
medium-high 7.24 (7.07, 7.41)   4.90 (4.70, 5.09)  
high 6.92 (6.74, 7.09) 0.16 5.07 (4.84, 5.30) 0.02
Overall satisfaction with antenatal care    
Satisfied or very satisfied 7.14 (7.04, 7.24)   4.96 (4.86, 5.06)  
Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied 6.82 (6.41, 7.25)   4.50 (4.18, 4.82)  
Dissatisfied or very dissatisfied 6.70 (6.25, 7.13) 0.16 4.66 (4.22, 5.11) 0.01
c) Intrapartum factors
Type of delivery     
Spontaneous vaginal birth 7.03 (6.90, 7.17)   4.87 (4.76, 4.98)  
Forceps 7.25 (6.98, 7.52)   5.70 (4.98, 6.43)  
Ventouse 7.18 (6.87, 7.49)   5.46 (4.82, 6.09)  
Caesarean section 7.14 (6.94, 7.33) 0.03 4.92 (4.72, 5.11) 0.04
Number of positive adjectives describing staff in labour and birth    
0-3 6.58 (6.38, 6.77)   4.64 (4.45, 4.82)  
4-5 7.06 (6.89, 7.23)   4.80 (4.64, 4.96)  
6+ 7.48 (7.34, 7.63) 0.00 5.18 (5.03, 5.33) 0.00
After birth, had skin-to-skin contact with baby    
Yes 7.19 (7.08, 7.30)   4.92 (4.82, 5.02)  
No, not offered 6.85 (6.53, 7.16)   5.02 (4.63, 5.42)  
No, not well enough 6.76 (6.37, 7.15)   4.92 (4.44, 5.39)  
No, not wanted 5.87 (4.77, 6.97) 0.02 4.63 (3.98, 5.27) 0.72
Staff communication in labour    
Very/fairly well 7.14 (7.03, 7.24)   4.93 (4.83, 5.03)  
Not very/at all well 6.60 (6.23, 6.98) 0.30 4.63 (4.28, 4.98) 0.05
Overall satisfaction with intrapartum care     
Satisfied or very satisfied 7.16 (7.05, 7.26)   4.94 (4.84, 5.04)  
Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied 6.85 (6.40, 7.30)   4.53 (4.10, 4.96)  
Dissatisfied or very dissatisfied 6.54 (6.15, 6.94) 0.03 4.88 (4.50, 5.26) 0.08
  1. *Adjusted for maternal age, ethnicity, IMD, age left full-time education, and father’s country of birth.
  2. Other variables entered in analysis but not significant in either primiparous or multiparous women: staff spoke so woman could understand, were kind and respectful antenatally, woman stayed in hospital overnight antenatally; number of negative adjectives applied to staff in labour, treated as an individual, staff spoke so woman could understand, were kind and respectful in intrapartum period, induction of labour, duration of labour, able to move around in labour, type of caesarean section, held/breastfed soon after birth, had confidence in staff intrapartum, left alone in labour or soon after the birth when it was worrying, how woman felt in first few days after the birth.