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Table 4 Sociodemographic factors associated with father involvement in pregnancy and labour: binary logistic regression

From: Fathers’ engagement in pregnancy and childbirth: evidence from a national survey

Factors associated with father having a negative reaction to pregnancy
Parity Odds ratio (95% CI)
Primiparous reference group
Multiparous 1.23 (1.03, 1.46)*
Index of multiple deprivation (Quintile, 1- least deprived)
1 reference group*
2 0.79 (0.60, 1.05)
3 1.25 (0.97, 1.60)
4 1.27 (0.97, 1.66)
5 1.14 (0.86, 1.50)
Woman’s age  
<25 years reference group
25-34 years 0.49 (0.39, 0.61)*
35+ years 0.48 (0.37, 0.63)*
Factors associated with father being present for 1 or more antenatal checks
Parity Odds ratio (95% CI)
Primiparous reference group
Multiparous 0.35 (0.31, 0.41)*
Index of multiple deprivation (Quintile, 1- least deprived)
1 reference group
2 1.04 (0.86, 1.26)
3 1.28 (1.05, 1.56)*
4 1.08 (0.88, 1.33)
5 1.27 (1.03, 1.58)*
Woman’s age  
<25 years reference group
25-34 years 0.79 (0.63, 0.98)*
35+ years 0.62 (0.49, 0.79)*
Factors associated with father being present for labour
Parity Odds ratio (95% CI)
Primiparous reference group
Multiparous 0.40 (0.30, 0.53)*
Ethnicity  
White reference group
Black and Minority Ethnic 0.38 (0.28, 0.50)*
Index of multiple deprivation (Quintile, 1- least deprived)  
1 reference group*
2 0.87 (0.57, 1.34)
3 0.79 (0.52, 1.20)
4 0.64 (0.42, 0.97)*
5 0.52 (0.34, 0.78)*
Woman’s age  
<25 years reference group*
25-34 years 1.05 (0.68, 1.63)
35+ years 0.66 (0.41, 1.04)
Factors associated with father not being at all involved in obtaining information and decision-making
Parity Odds ratio (95% CI)
Primiparous reference group
Multiparous 3.11 (2.54, 3.80)*
Index of multiple deprivation (Quintile, 1- least deprived)  
1 reference group
2 1.17 (0.87, 1.56)
3 1.44 (1.09, 1.91)*
4 1.36 (1.01, 1.83)*
5 1.44 (1.07, 1.95)*
Woman’s age  
<25 years reference group
25-34 years 0.76 (0.57, 1.01)
35+ years 0.69 (0.50, 0.94)*
Factors associated with father being involved in infant care
Parity Odds ratio (95% CI)
Primiparous reference group
Multiparous 0.79 (0.68, 0.92)*
Index of multiple deprivation (Quintile, 1- least deprived)  
1 reference group
2 1.11 (0.87, 1.41)
3 1.14 (0.90, 1.45)
4 1.35 (1.06, 1.73)*
5 1.56 (1.22, 2.00)*
  1. * p < 0.05 Adjusted for maternal age, ethnicity, parity and Index of Multiple Deprivation.