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Table 1 Conceptual framework and final item wording

From: Transition to motherhood in type 1 diabetes: design of the pregnancy and postnatal well-being in transition questionnaires

Theme Concept Final item wording
   Pregnancy version Postnatal version
Social environment General social support I feel well supported during my pregnancy. I feel well supported during the first weeks after giving birth.
  People – understand challenges I feel that people around me understand the challenges of having diabetes and being pregnant. I feel that people around me understand the challenges of having diabetes and caring for a baby.
  People – support emotional I feel emotionally supported by my partner since I became pregnant. I feel emotionally supported by my partner since my baby has arrived.
I feel emotionally supported by my family (e.g. parents, in-laws, brothers, sisters). I feel emotionally supported by my family (e.g. parents, in-laws, brothers, sisters).
  Partner – support practicalities I feel supported by my partner with the practicalities of being pregnant. I feel supported by my partner with the practicalities of caring for our baby.
I feel supported by my family (e.g. parents, in-laws, brothers, sisters) with the practicalities of being pregnant. I feel supported by my family (e.g. parents, in-laws, brothers, sisters) with the practicalities of caring for my baby.
  Health professionals support My health professionals help me to understand what I want to know. My health professionals helped me to understand what I want to know.
My health professionals prepared me for what to expect whilst being pregnant. My health professionals prepared me for what to expect after giving birth.
My health professionals equipped me with the skills needed to manage my diabetes while being pregnant. My health professionals equipped me with the skills needed to manage my diabetes after giving birth
I feel supported by my health professionals. I feel supported by my health professionals.
I can always talk openly with my health professionals about how I feel. I can always talk openly with my health professionals about how I feel.
My health professionals only give me information about my unborn baby’s health when I ask questions. My health professionals only give me information about my baby’s health when I ask questions.
My health professionals always discuss my care plan with me. My health professionals always discuss my care plan with me.
  Information I have enough information about caring for a unborn baby whilst having diabetes* I have enough information about caring for a baby whilst having diabetes*
  Family interactions My family claims they know what is best for my diabetes. My family claims they know what is best for my diabetes.
My family think they know what is best for my unborn baby. My family think they know what is best for my baby.
My friends think they know what is best for my diabetes. My friends think they know what is best for my diabetes.
My friends think they know what is best for my unborn baby. My friends think they know what is best for my baby.
Concerns related to physical (maternal and fetal) wellbeing Anxiety – managing BG levels I feel anxious managing my diabetes because my blood glucose levels have changed since becoming pregnant. I worry about dropping my baby when I have a hypo*
I worry more about low blood glucose levels now I am pregnant. I worry more about low blood glucose levels now thatI have to take care of a baby.
  Anxiety – developing complications I worry more about developing new diabetes complications since I became pregnant. I worry more about developing new diabetes complications since I became a mother.
   I worry about my unborn baby developing diabetes. I worry about my baby developing diabetes
  Awareness - diabetes Being pregnant made me more aware about the importance of looking after my diabetes. Being a mother has made me more aware about looking after my diabetes.
My unborn baby’s needs always come before my diabetes care needs. My baby’s needs always come before my diabetes care needs.
Being pregnant makes me realise my own health is very important. Having a baby makes me realise my own health is very important.
  Balancing Diabetes and pregnancy/new baby Balancing the needs of my diabetes care and my unborn baby’s needs is a real challenge. Balancing the needs of my diabetes care and my baby’s needs is a real challenge.
I find it easier to prioritise my long term health goals now I am pregnant. I find it easier to prioritise my long term health goals now I am a mother.
  Breastfeeding*   I received adequate information about how breastfeeding impacts on blood glucose levels.*
My health professionals explained how breastfeeding could affect my blood glucose levels.*
My health professionals explained how to manage my blood glucose levels when breast feeding.*
Psychological well-being Optimistic – healthy baby I feel optimistic about my baby’s future health. I feel optimistic about my baby’s future health.
  Optimistic – not developing complications I feel optimistic about my personal risk of developing diabetes complications. I feel optimistic about my personal risk of developing diabetes complications
  Sense of achievement Managing my diabetes whilst being pregnant gives me a sense of achievement Managing my diabetes whilst caring for my baby gives me a sense of achievement.
  Coping – with baby and diabetes I am coping well with looking after my pregnancy and diabetes. I am coping well with looking after both my baby and diabetes.
  Competence* I feel competent overall that I can manage whatever being pregnant involves*. I feel competent overall in caring for my baby*.
I feel I can manage my diabetes no matter what*. I feel I can manage my diabetes no matter what*.
  Anxiety about new role I feel anxious about my diabetes management since becoming pregnant. I feel anxious about my diabetes management since becoming a mother.
  Judgemental attitudes – others I worry that others judge my ability to care for my unborn baby because I have diabetes. I worry that health professionals judge my ability to care for my baby because I have diabetes.
  Guilt feelings I feel guilty knowing diabetes might affect my unborn baby’s health. I feel guilty knowing that diabetes might affect my baby’s health.
I feel guilty about the affect my diabetes has on family and friends now I am pregnant. I feel guilty about the affect my diabetes has on family and friends now I have a baby.
  Motivation Being pregnant motivates me to look after my diabetes. Having a baby motivates me to look after my diabetes.
  Sense of loneliness I feel alone caring for my pregnancy. I feel alone caring for my baby.
  Depression I have little interest or pleasure in doing things since I became pregnant. I have little interest or pleasure in doing things since I gave birth.
I have trouble making any decisions now I am pregnant. I have trouble making any decisions now I am a mother.
  Confidence I feel confident I can do everything I need to do for me and my unborn baby. I feel confident I can do everything I need to do for me and my baby.
Miscellaneous Financial impact of entering motherhood* Financial costs are a barrier to managing my diabetes now I am pregnant. Financial costs are a barrier to managing my diabetes now I am a mother.
The financial costs of managing my diabetes worry me more now I am pregnant. The financial costs of managing my diabetes worry me more now I am a mother.
  Internet* The internet is the most common way I communicate with other pregnant women with diabetes.* The internet is the most common way I communicate with other new mothers with diabetes.*
  1. *indicate items added after interviews.