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Table 1 Maternal, neonatal and process/intervention secondary outcomes assessed in SPRING

From: SPRING: an RCT study of probiotics in the prevention of gestational diabetes mellitus in overweight and obese women

Maternal Neonatal Process/intervention
Gestational weight gain Body composition, anthropometry Visit attendance
Preeclampsia* Preterm delivery Adherence to probiotic/placebo regimen
Induction of labor Shoulder dystocia  
Cesarean delivery Hypoglycemia  
 Elective Treatment with supplementary fluids/feeds  
 Emergency   
Change in prevalence of L. rhamnosus and B. lactis in gut microbiome Nerve palsy  
Change in lipids and inflammatory profile Admission to neonatal intensive care unit  
Change in dietary indices and physical activity levels between baseline and 28 weeks gestation Jaundice requiring phototherapy  
  Bone fracture  
  Death: stillbirth or neonatal death  
  1. * Preeclampsia as diagnosed as per the criteria of the international society for the study of hypertension in pregnancy (ISSHP) [25].