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Table 6 KiGGS study: sample characteristics (N = 16301) according to the level of alcohol intake during pregnancy

From: Preterm birth and small for gestational age in relation to alcohol consumption during pregnancy: stronger associations among vulnerable women? results from two large Western-European studies

  Total N = 16301 Abstainer N = 14089 (86.4%) Non-abstainer N = 2212 (13.6%) P for trend
Maternal education (%)     
 Low 23.5 24.7 15.8 <0.001
 Middle 47.4 48.0 43.9
 High 29.1 27.3 40.0
Smoking during pregnancy (% yes) 17.0 16.6 19.5 0.001
Maternal height (cm) 166.5 (6.3) 166.4 (6.3) 167.4 (6.2) <0.001
Maternal BMI 24.5 (4.7) 24.6 (4.7) 24.2 (4.6) <0.001
Maternal age (years) 28.2 (5.1) 28.0 (5.1) 29.4 (5.0) <0.001
Parity (% >0) 67.9 67.6 69.9 0.044
Ethnicity (%)     
 German 84.6 83.5 91.5 <0.001
 Non-German 15.4 16.5 8.5
  1. Data were missing for maternal education (N = 448), smoking during pregnancy (N = 89), maternal height (N = 188), maternal BMI (N = 299), maternal age (N = 154), parity (N = 3457), ethnicity (N = 113).
  2. Values are percentages for categorical factors, or means (with standard deviations) for continuous factors.