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Table 4 Factors associated with post-partum hemorrhage: Results from logistic regression analyses

From: How effective are the components of active management of the third stage of labor?

  Blood loss ≥ 700 mL
  No oxytocin prophylaxis (N = 8154) Oxytocin prophylaxis (N = 30569)
  OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value
Receipt of AMTSL components*     
 None ref - - -
 UM only 1.14 (0.87-1.50) 0.349 - -
 CCT only 0.53 (0.42-0.66) 0.000 - -
 CCT + UM 1.66 (1.31-2.10) 0.000 - -
 Oxytocin (IM) only - - ref -
 Oxytocin (IM) + CCT - - 0.33 (0.25-0.45) 0.000
 Oxytocin (IM) + CCT + UM - - 0.65 (0.48-0.88) 0.006
 Oxytocin (IV) only - - 0.24 (0.12-0.50) 0.000
 Oxytocin (IV) + CCT - - 0.28 (0.14-0.55) 0.000
 Oxytocin (IV) + CCT + UM - - 0.79 (0.62-0.99) 0.044
Labor induced/augmented - - 0.91 (0.76-1.09) 0.284
Parity     
 0 1.24 (1.04-1.48) 0.016 2.36 (2.01-2.76) 0.000
 1-3 ref - ref -
 4+ 0.61 (0.32-1.16) 0.130 0.51 (0.29-0.88) 0.017
Multiple pregnancy 1.33 (0.68-2.62) 0.401 1.62 (0.97-2.70) 0.065
Gestational age at delivery weeks     
 <37 0.40 (0.22-0.73) 0.002 0.32 (0.20-0.51) 0.000
 37-41 ref - ref -
 42+ 0.82 (0.46-1.45) 0.495 1.48 (0.93-2.36) 0.102
Anemia** 1.19 (1.00-1.42) 0.049 1.28 (1.11-1.49) 0.001
Prior known post-partum hemorrhage 2.18 (0.74-6.48) 0.159 5.17 (3.21-8.31) 0.000
Age (years)     
 <20 1.24 (0.89-1.73) 0.195 0.78 (0.61-0.99) 0.041
 20-34 ref - ref -
 35+ 0.94 (0.66-1.32) 0.715 1.46 (1.07-1.99) 0.017
Educational attainment     
 No education ref - ref -
 Primary school 0.87 (0.67-1.13) 0.288 1.14 (0.91-1.43) 0.250
 Secondary or higher 1.03 (0.81-1.32) 0.786 1.20 (1.00-1.44) 0.045
  1. AMTSL denotes active management of the third stage of labor; CCT, controlled cord traction; and UM, uterine massage, IM, intramuscular; and IV, intravenous.
  2. *Additional tests for differences between AMTSL groups in the oxytocin prophylaxis regimen were obtained by re-running the regression model with alternate reference categories. Results were as follows:
  3. a. Oxy (IV) + CCT vs. oxy (IV) (ref): OR = 1.13, 95% CI 0.43-2.96.
  4. b. Oxy (IM) + CCT + UM vs. oxy (IM) + CCT (ref): OR = 1.94, 95% CI 1.43-2.65.
  5. c. Oxy (IV) + CCT + UM vs. oxy (IV) + CCT (ref): OR = 2.86, 95% CI 1.46-5.59.
  6. d. Oxy (IV) + CCT vs. oxy (IM) + CCT (ref): OR = 1.21, 95% CI 0.60-2.46.
  7. e. Oxy (IM) + CCT + UM vs. oxy (IV) + CCT + UM (ref): OR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.64-1.07.
  8. **Anemia was defined as pre-delivery hemoglobin of < 11.0 g/dL.