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Table 1 Demographic and obstetric characteristics of study participants by receipt of AMTSL components (N = 39202)

From: How effective are the components of active management of the third stage of labor?

  No oxytocin prophylaxis (N = 8221) Oxytocin prophylaxis (N = 30981)
  No AMTSL components (n = 1832) UM only (n = 959) CCT only (n = 4014) CCT + UM (n = 1416) Oxytocin only (n = 3638) Oxytocin + CCT (n = 6898) Oxytocin + CCT + UM (n = 20445)
Country of residence        
  Burkina Faso 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 9 (0.1) 3684 (18.0)
  Egypt 2 (0.1) 2 (0.2) 3979 (99.1) 1385 (97.8) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 16305 (79.8)
  Turkey 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 2385 (65.6) 544 (7.9) 11 (0.1)
  Vietnam 1830 (99.9) 957 (99.8) 35 (0.9) 31 (2.2) 1253 (34.4) 6345 (92.0) 445 (2.2)
Mean age in years ± SD 26.2 ± 4.9 26.2 ± 4.8 26.1 ± 5.1 26.9 ± 4.8 25.6 ± 5.2 25.6 ± 5.0 25.3 ± 5.2
Educational attainment        
  No education 60 (3.3) 12 (1.3) 1122 (28.0) 357 (25.2) 102 (2.8) 161 (2.3) 8190 (40.1)
  Primary 660 (36.1) 348 (36.4) 1178 (29.4) 439 (31.0) 1877 (51.7) 3384 (49.2) 2763 (13.5)
  Secondary or higher 1111 (60.7) 597 (62.4) 1711 (42.7) 620 (43.8) 1655 (45.5) 3338 (48.5) 9477 (46.4)
Currently married 1812 (99.0) 952 (99.3) 4009 (99.9) 1415 (100.0) 3626 (99.7) 6830 (99.3) 20258 (99.1)
Parity        
  0 930 (50.9) 489 (51.0) 1706 (42.5) 543 (38.4) 1759 (48.4) 3712 (53.8) 9175 (44.9)
  1-3 895 (49.0) 468 (48.9) 2133 (53.1) 795 (56.2) 1860 (51.2) 3163 (45.9) 10084 (49.4)
  4+ 1 (0.1) 1 (0.1) 175 (4.4) 77 (5.4) 17 (0.5) 21 (0.3) 1159 (5.7)
Multiple pregnancy 26 (1.4) 9 (0.9) 31 (0.8) 26 (1.8) 39 (1.1) 61 (0.9) 351 (1.7)
Mean gestational age at delivery in weeks ± SD 38.7 ± 1.6 39.0 ± 1.2 39.5 ± 1.4 39.5 ± 1.3 39.0 ± 1.6 39.4 ± 1.3 39.1 ± 1.8
Prior known post-partum hemorrhage 15 (0.8) 4 (0.4) 4 (0.1) 3 (0.2) 56 (1.5) 39 (0.6) 165 (0.8)
Mean pre-delivery hemoglobin in g/dL ± SD 11.9 ± 1.4 12.0 ± 1.1 11.1 ± 1.2 10.9 ± 1.4 12.1 ± 1.5 12.3 ± 1.3 11.0 ± 1.1
Early cord clamping performed 15 (0.8) 101 (10.5) 3981 (99.2) 1396 (98.6) 2594 (71.3) 6841 (99.2) 20428 (99.9)
Epidural given 37 (2.0) 69 (7.2) 2 (0.1) 1 (0.1) 24 (0.7) 42 (0.6) 21 (0.1)
Labor induced or augmented 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1968 (54.3) 681 (9.9) 11898 (58.3)
  1. Data are n (%) unless otherwise indicated. AMTSL denotes active management of the third stage of labor; CCT, controlled cord traction; UM, uterine massage; and SD, standard deviation.