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Table 2 Characteristics of included programs

From: Misoprostol for postpartum hemorrhage prevention at home birth: an integrative review of global implementation experience to date

Country (* indicates peer-reviewed reference) Design and scope Home birth rate (for region or program area, where available; **indicates national rate) Number of women enrolled (for “studies,” number reflects intervention group only) Number of women taking misoprostol (aindicates overall; bindicates number from postpartum subsample) Administration method(s)
Afghanistan [24]* Study using nonrandomized experimental control design in 2 districts 80.1% 2039 13501 Self
Bangladesh [33] Operations research project in 6 districts 87% 118,594 enrolled; 77,337 delivered, of whom 53,897 received CDK2 46,561a 1893b Self and TBA
Bangladesh [14]*3 Study using quasi-experimental design in 2 districts 85%** 1009 884 CHW
Bangladesh [34] Pilot project in 1 district 85%** 19,497 9228 Self
Ethiopia [13]* Study using quasi-experimental design in 1 area 97% 500 485 TBA
Gambia [35]* Study using randomized controlled design in 1 district 72% 630 630 TBA
Ghana [36] Pilot project in 4 districts 37.5% 5345 1261b Self
India [22]* Study using randomized controlled design in 1 district 45.2% 812 809 SBA
Indonesia [37] Study using nonrandomized experimental design in 2 districts 48% 1322 999 Self
Kenya [38] Pilot project in 2 districts 38.7% 3844 1084b Self and SBA
Mozambique [39] Operations research project in 4 districts, with each of 3 sites using a different distribution strategy: 1) late ANC only, 2) TBA at birth, 3) a combination of late ANC and TBA at birth 35.3% 11,927 4781b Self and/or TBA
Nepal [23]* Operations research project in 1 district 89.1% 18,761 13,969a 435b Self
Nigeria [40] Operations research project in 1 state 95% 1875 1421b TBA
Pakistan [15]* Study using randomized controlled design in 1 province 65%** 534 533 TBA
Pakistan [41]*4 Study using quasi-experimental design in 2 districts 61% 872 678 TBA
Tanzania [42] Operations research project in 4 districts 30.8% 12,511 1826b Self
Zambia [43] Pilot project in 5 districts 59.9% 5574 233b Self
Zambia [44] Pilot project in 10 districts 71% (for rural areas)** 31,315 Not reported Self and TBA
  1. 1 Administration Before Birth and Adverse Maternal Outcomes were reported for all 1421 women in the intervention group who took misoprostol, regardless of the place of delivery, but for consistency with other studies and programs (and because there was no indication to the contrary), we have assumed, particularly for the adverse outcomes reported in Table 6, that any such outcomes occurred only in those 1350 women taking misoprostol for home births.
  2. 2 Misoprostol included in CDK. The kits used by these programs included gloves, soap, a blood loss measurement mat [31, 32, 45] and other materials recommended for use by women who delivered at home.
  3. 3 Dose of misoprostol used was 400 μg (two tablets).
  4. 4 Misoprostol 600 μg was included in CDK.