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Table 3 Adjusted odds ratios for determinants of health facility delivery among women in Kenya 1

From: Factors influencing place of delivery for women in Kenya: an analysis of the Kenya demographic and health survey, 2008/2009

Exposure variable Adjusted2OR (95% CI) P value
Socio-cultural factors   
Ethnic group (Luhya) 1.00 <0.001
Kalenjin 3.22 (1.51 – 6.87)
Kamba 0.56 (0.27 – 1.17)
Kikuyu 3.66 (1.72 – 7.74)
Kisii 1.01 (0.48 – 2.09)
Luo 1.36 (0.73 – 2.53)
Meru 2.93 (1.14 – 7.52)
Mijikenda/Swahili 1.16 (0.46 – 2.90)
Somali 3.75 (1.15 – 12.31)
Other 1.14 (0.54 – 2.40)
Maternal education (None) 1.00 <0.001*
Primary 1.88 (1.11 – 3.18)
Secondary 4.08 (2.24 – 7.46)
Higher 7.46 (2.72 – 20.45)
Perceived benefit/need   
No. of ANC 3 visits (≤1 visit) 1.00 <0.001*
2 visits 2.17 (1.14 – 4.13)
3 visits 3.62 (2.02 – 6.48)
≥4 visits 5.06 (2.88 – 8.90)
Birth order (1st delivery) 1.00 <0.001*
2nd delivery 0.48 (0.35 – 0.67)
3rd delivery 0.33 (0.24 – 0.46)
≥4th delivery 0.35 (0.23 – 0.54)
Health facility of ANC 3(Government Hospital) 1.00 <0.001
Health Centre 0.73 (0.54 – 0.98)
Dispensary 0.52 (0.37 – 0.72)
Private Health Facility 1.64 (1.00 – 2.69)
Faith-based Facility 1.14 (0.65 – 1.99)
Other 0.14 (0.04 – 0.56)
Physical accessibility   
Region (Nyanza) 1.00 <0.001
Nairobi 2.18 (0.80 – 5.90)
Central 1.11 (0.45 – 2.75)
Coast 1.40 (0.62 – 3.15)
Eastern 1.70 (0.82 – 3.54)
Rift valley 0.36 (0.18 – 0.72)
Western 0.59 (0.30 – 1.33)
North Eastern 0.38 (0.12 – 1.21)
Economic accessibility   
Wealth index (Poorest) 1.00 <0.001*
Poor 1.39 (0.94 – 2.06)
Middle 1.96 (1.34 – 2.89)
Richer 2.15 (1.42 – 3.27)
Richest 5.62 (3.54 – 8.93)
Insurance (No) 1.00 0.001
Yes 2.39 (1.33 – 4.31)  
  1. 12008/2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey Data; 2Adjusted for the other variables in the table; 3Antenatal care; *p for trend;