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Table 2 Thematic analysis of qualitative responses, by major themes, sub categories, and words

From: A cross-sectional study of maternal perception of fetal movements and antenatal advice in a general pregnant population, using a qualitative framework

Major theme Sub-category Words
“How did you baby’s first movement feel”
Abstract movements Gentle Gentle, soft, light, faint, hard to notice, feather
Gas Bubbles, wind, gas, air, bowel movement, stomach rub, gurgling, heartburn
Flutter Flutter, butterfly wing, ripple/waves, tingle, buzz, whoosh, itch, stomach spasm
Feelings of the mother Positive Amazing, wonderful, comforting, good, nice, peaceful, exciting, joy/happy
Negative discomfort, nauseating, pinch, irritating, creeping
Neutral strange, foreign, weird, surprise
Early actions Limb Push, kick, jolt, punch, stab/jab, tap, scratching, thump, knock, poke, flick
Whole body Push, twists, swirl, spin, roll, wriggle, throbbing, hiccups, pulsing
“How have your baby’s movements felt as the pregnancy progressed?”
Changes Increasing power Harder, stronger, more intensity, more force, more vigorous
Sharper shorter
Uncomfortable, painful, hard to sleep, more aggressive
Bigger movements visible, identifiable features, more definite, “fighting for space” “trying to escape from belly” “felt all over”
frequency/duration more frequent, more active, peak in week 28
Less sudden, sharp, sustained and constant
increased repetitive sensation/hiccups, pulses
Action/Type of movements Short and sharp kicking, drums, punch, hit, strike, thump, nudge, poke, jab, tap, flick, jerk, twitch
smooth Bumps, squirming, stretching, rolling/change position, swipe, wave, churning, side to side,, twists, somersault, swoop, pushing, pressing
complex swimming, running