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Table 2 Summary of study characteristics

From: International migration and caesarean birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Characteristic n (number of studies) %
Language of publication (n=76)  
  English 62 81.6
  French 4 5.3
  Italian 3 5.3
  Spanish 1 2.6
  Norwegian 2 3.9
  German 4 1.3
Publication period (n=76)  
  < 1980 9 11.8
  1980-1989 6 7.9
  1990-1999 13 17.1
  2000-2012 45 59.2
  Unpublished 3 3.9
Data Sources (n=76)  
  Population-based data registries 21 27.6
  Population-based hospital data 2 2.6
  Population-based surveys 4 5.3
  Research study/hospital records 49 64.5
Variables adjusted (n=19) *  
  Maternal age 19 100
  Parity 17 89.5
  Education 7 36.8
  Gestational age 8 42.1
  Marital status 3 15.8
  Prenatal care 3 15.8
  Social economic status (poverty, income, under-housing, occupation) 4 21.1
  Birthweight 9 47.4
  Medical complications 2 10.5
  Mechanical factors 1 5.3
  Previous caesarean 1 5.3
  Pregnancy complications (multiple, preterm, fetal stress) 3 15.8
  Smoking & substance abuse 1 5.3
  Medical indications 2 10.5
  Onset of labour 1 5.3
  Maternal weight/BMI/diabetes 5 26.3
  Assisted reproductive technology 2 10.5
  Infant sex 4 21.1
  Hospital characteristics (level of care, size of hospital, private facility) 5 26.3
  Insurance status 2 10.5
  Birth year 1 5.3
  Time of day 1 5.3
  Location of institution 2 10.5
Coverage (n=75)  
  National 15 19.7
  Regional 12 15.8
  Local 49 64.5
Data years (n=75)  
  < 1980 12 12.6
  1980–1989 17 17.9
  1990–1999 28 29.5
  2000-2010 38 40.0
Number of migrants studied (n=74) §  
  < 1,000 32 43.2
  1,000-5,000 23 31.2
  > 5,000-10,000 5 6.8
  >10,000 14** 18.9
Source regions (n=1,029,454) ††  
  Sub-Saharan Africa 66,163 6.4
  North Africa/West Asia 65,689 6.4
  Latin America & Caribbean 404,729 39.3
  North America/Australia 8855 0.9
  East Asia 68,084 6.6
  South-East Asia 69,589 6.8
  South Asia 70,545 6.9
  Asia (unspecified) 46,842 4.6
  Oceania (unspecified) 18,005 1.7
  East Europe 27,922 2.7
  North/West Europe 58,065 5.6
  South Europe 16,336 1.6
  Unspecified 108,630 10.6
Receiving countries (n= 76) ‡‡  
  Australia 9 11.1
  Belgium 2 2.5
  Canada 5 6.2
  Finland 2 2.5
  France 6 7.4
  Germany 4 4.9
  Greece 3 3.7
  Holland 2 2.5
  Ireland 3 3.7
  Israel 3 3.7
  Italy 9 11.1
  Norway 10 12.3
  Portugal 1 1.2
  Spain 3 3.7
  Sweden 3 3.7
  Switzerland 1 1.2
  UK 6 7.4
  US 9 11.1
Quality of reports (n=76)  
  Good 22 28.9
  Fair 54 71.1
Caesareans (n=64) §§  
  Higher 13 20.3
  Higher/No different 12 18.8
  Lower 9 14.1
  Lower/No different 2 3.1
  Mixed 8 12.5
  No different 20 31.3
Emergency caesareans (n=21) ***  
  Higher 7 33.3
  Higher/No different 4 19.0
  Lower 0 0.0
  Lower/No different 0 0.0
  Mixed 0 0.0
  No different 10 47.6
Elective caesareans (n=19) ***  
  Higher 2 10.5
  Higher/No different 3 15.8
  Lower 5 26.3
  Lower/No different 2 10.5
  Mixed 1 5.3
  No different 6 31.6
  1. * Texeira 2010 did not specify variables controlled so excluded; each study may have controlled for more than one variable so total does not equal 19 (or 100%).
  2. Texeira 2010 did not specify area of coverage; Small 2008 contained regional and national data coverage and so is counted twice.
  3. Texeira 2010 did not specify year(s) of data; total adds to more than 74 since a report may have data from more than one time period.
  4. § Number of migrants not provided in Giani 2011 and Parsons 1993.
  5. ** Kinston 2011 used weighted numbers.
  6. †† Total number of migrants studied across reports (overlap accounted for).
  7. ‡‡ Small 2008 studied migrants in 6 receiving countries.
  8. §§ Giani 2011, Ismail 2011, Le Ray 2006, Walsh, Robson & Foley 2009 and Walsh 2011 are excluded due to lack of data for overall caesarean rates; Studies where rates are not statistically compared are also excluded. Small 2008 was counted as 6 studies since results for 6 receiving countries were reported.
  9. *** Studies where rates are not statistically compared are excluded.
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