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Table 2 Characteristics of studies reporting fistula incidence included in the review

From: Estimating the prevalence of obstetric fistula: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author Study area Study design Assessment of fistula Number of fistula Number of women/pregnancies Incidence(per 1000 pregnant women)
Community based studies
Vangeenderhuysen et al., 2001 [22] Eight centres (urban and rural) in six countries in West Africa Prospective cohort study of all pregnant women found by a door to door census of households followed up from antepartum to two months postpartum. Women reporting gynaecological problems. Fistula assessed at last contact 60 days after delivery 2 19,694 0.10 (0.01, 0.3)
Ferdous et al., 2012 [33] Matlab, Bangladesh. Rural Prospective cohort of all women with obstetric complications, a perinatal death or caesarean section, and random sample of women with uncomplicated births. Physical examination at health centre from six to nine weeks postpartum 0 1,162 0 (0, 3.17)
Fronczak et al., 2005 [20] Urban slums in Dhaka, Bangladesh Prospective community-based study of women completing at least seven months of pregnancy. Women excluded if birth identified more than 21 days postpartum. Sample selected using multi-stage probability. Physical exam conducted by female physicians conducted one-month postpartum 0 557 0 (0.0. 6.6)
Studies with hospital based recruitment
Filippi et al., 2007 [30] Seven public urban and rural hospitals in Burkina Faso All women with severe obstetric complications delivering in hospitals and two controls per case. Interviews conducted at 3, 6, and 12 months after pregnancy. Medical examinations 1 1,014 0.99 (0.03, 5.48)
Filippi et al., 2010 [31] Cotonou, Porto Novo and neighbouring communities in south Benin Prospective cohort study of women with severe obstetric complications and a sample of women with uncomplicated childbirth. Medical examination with obstetricians 1 709 1.41 (0.04, 7.83)
Prual et al., 1998 [32] Niamey city, Niger. Urban All deliveries in six maternity wards, and all complications referred to the two referral maternity wards occurring from 28th week antenatal to 42nd day postpartum. Medical examinations 2 4,081 0.49 (0.06, 1.77)