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Table 3 Comparison between newborns with asphyxia and newborns with asphyxia and maternal fever in Bangladesh and India

From: Maternal infection and risk of intrapartum death: a population based observational study in South Asia

Factors Associated with maternal infection Pooled dataset (n = 3890) Bangladesh (n = 3427) India (n = 463)
Hypoxia alone (n = 3716) Fever and hypoxia (n = 174) p valuea Hypoxia alone (n = 3303) Fever and hypoxia (n = 124) p valuea Hypoxia alone (n = 413) Fever and hypoxia (n = 50) p valuea
Newborn health          
Early neonatal death, n (%)          
No 2997 (80.7) 125 (71.8) 0.004 2752 (83.3) 97 (78.2) 0.137 245 (59.3) 28 (56.0) 0.652
Yes 719 (19.4) 49 (28.2)   551 (16.7) 27 (21.8)   168 (40.7) 22 (44.0)  
Signs of maternal infection          
Prom, n (%)          
No nab na na 2420 (73.3) 82 (66.1) 0.203 na na na
Yes na na   810 (24.5) 38 (30.7)   na na  
Missing     73 (2.2) 4 (3.2)     
Maternal characteristics          
Maternal education, n (%)          
No education 973 (26.2) 69 (39.7) <0.001 689 (20.9) 33 (26.6) 0.003 284 (68.8) 36 (72.0) 0.735
Primary 1177 (31.7) 59 (33.9)   1150 (34.8) 55 (44.4)   27 (6.5) 4 (8.0)  
Secondary 1566 (42.1) 46 (26.4)   1464 (44.3) 36 (29.0)   102 (24.7) 10 (20.0)  
Maternal reading ability, n (%)          
Unable to read 1129 (30.4) 77 (44.3) <0.001 839 (25.4) 39 (31.5) 0.092 290 (70.2) 38 (76.0) 0.688
Reads with difficulty 675 (18.2) 34 (19.5)   647 (19.6) 31 (25.0)   28 (6.8) 3 (6.0)  
Reads with ease 1908 (51.4) 63 (36.2)   1813 (54.9) 54 (43.6)   95 (23.0) 9 (18.0)  
Missing 4 (0.1) 0 (0.0)   4 (0.1) 0 (0.0)   0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
Maternal age in years, n (%)          
<20 859 (23.1) 45 (25.9) 0.086 782 (23.7) 33 (26.6) 0.039 77 (18.6) 12 (24.0) 0.449
20–29 2242 (60.3) 90 (51.7)   2004 (60.7) 60 (48.4)   238 (57.6) 30 (60.0)  
30–39 555 (14.9) 36 (20.7)   485 (14.7) 29 (23.4)   70 (17.0) 7 (14.0)  
40+ 37 (1.0) 3 (1.7)   31 (0.9) 2 (1.6)   6 (1.5) 1 (2.0)  
Missing 23 (0.6) 0 (0.0)   1 (0.0) 0 (0.0)   22 (5.3) 0 (0.0)  
Household assets, n (%)          
All 1367 (36.8) 43 (24.7) <0.001 1289 (39.0) 34 (27.4) <0.001 78 (18.9) 9 (18.0) 0.351
Some 1173 (31.6) 51 (29.3)   918 (27.8) 24 (19.4)   255 (61.7) 27 (54.0)  
None 1176 (31.7) 80 (46.0)   1096 (33.2) 66 (53.2)   80 (19.4) 14 (28.0)  
Parity, n (%)          
1 1807 (48.6) 68 (39.1) <0.001 1618 (49.0) 49 (39.5) <0.001 189 (45.8) 19 (38.0) 0.324
2 798 (21.5) 34 (19.5)   717 (21.7) 24 (19.4)   81 (19.6) 10 (20.0)  
3 476 (12.8) 30 (17.2)   434 (13.1) 20 (16.1)   42 (10.2) 10 (20.0)  
4 275 (7.4) 11 (6.3)   246 (7.5) 7 (5.7)   29 (7.0) 4 (8.0)  
5 173 (4.7) 9 (5.2)   148 (4.5) 8 (6.5)   25 (6.1) 1 (2.0)  
6 187 (5.0) 22 (12.6)   140 (4.2) 16 (12.9)   47 (11.4) 6 (12.0)  
Antenatal period          
Number of antenatal care visits, n (%)          
0 1007 (27.1) 48 (27.6) 0.672 868 (26.3) 34 (27.4) 0.922 139 (33.7) 14 (28.0) 0.227
1 719 (19.4) 42 (24.1)   658 (19.9) 28 (22.6)   61 (14.8) 14 (28.0)  
2 672 (18.1) 27 (15.5)   605 (18.3) 19 (15.3)   67 (16.2) 8 (16.0)  
3 543 (14.6) 23 (13.2)   481 (14.6) 19 (15.3)   62 (15.0) 4 (8.0)  
4 769 (20.7) 34 (19.5)   686 (20.8) 24 (19.4)   83 (20.1) 10 (20.0)  
Missing 6 (0.2) 0 (0.0)   5 (0.2) 0 (0.0)   1 (0.2) 0 (0.0)  
Bleeding during pregnancy, n (%)          
No 3545 (95.4) 165 (94.8) 0.886 3142 (95.1) 115 (92.7) 0.449 403 (97.6) 50 (100.0) 0.266
Yes 169 (4.6) 9 (5.2)   159 (4.8) 9 (7.3)   10 (2.4) 0 (0.0)  
Missing 2 (0.1) 0 (0.0)   2 (0.1) 0 (0.0)   0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
Delivery period          
Preterm birth, n (%)          
Baby born at term 3271 (88.0) 145 (83.3) 0.174 2955 (89.5) 110 (88.7) 0.846 316 (76.6) 35 (70.0) 0.595
Baby born less than 9 months gestation 433 (11.7) 28 (16.1)   342 (10.4) 14 (11.3)   91 (22.0) 14 (28.0)  
Missing 12 (0.3) 1 (0.6)   6 (0.2) 0 (0.0)   6 (1.5) 1 (2.0)  
Baby delivered by skilled attendant, n (%)c          
No 2574 (69.3) 113 (64.9) 0.346 2282 (69.1) 85 (68.6) 0.799 292 (70.7) 28 (56.0) 0.034
Yes 1131 (30.4) 61 (35.1)   1010 (30.6) 39 (31.5)   121 (29.3) 22 (44.0)  
Missing 11 (0.3) 0 (0.0)   11 (0.3) 0 (0.0)   0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
Institutional delivery, n (%)          
No 2708 (72.9) 119 (68.4) 0.392 2399 (72.6) 89 (71.8) 0.921 309 (74.8) 30 (60.0) 0.025
Yes 1005 (27.1) 55 (31.6)   901 (27.3) 35 (28.2)   104 (25.2) 20 (40.0)  
Missing 3 (0.1) 0 (0.0)   3 (0.1) 0 (0.0)   0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
Excessive bleeding during delivery, n (%)          
No 3578 (96.3) 151 (86.8) <0.001 3187 (96.5) 116 (93.6) 0.085 391 (94.7) 35 (70.0) <0.001
Yes 138 (3.7) 23 (13.2)   116 (3.5) 8 (6.5)   22 (5.3) 15 (30.0)  
Malpresentation at birth, n (%)          
No 3171 (85.3) 144 (82.8) 0.336 2798 (84.7) 104 (83.9) 0.326 373 (90.3) 40 (80.0) 0.085
Yes 291 (7.8) 19 (10.9)   271 (8.2) 14 (11.3)   20 (4.8) 5 (10.0)  
Missing 254 (6.8) 11 (6.3)   234 (7.1) 6 (4.8)   20 (4.8) 5 (10.0)  
Type of delivery, n (%)          
Normal, vaginal 3378 (90.9) 159 (91.4) 0.858 2979 (90.2) 114 (91.9) 0.474 399 (96.6) 45 (90.0) 0.067
Vaginal, assisted 88 (2.4) 3 (1.7)   84 (2.5) 1 (0.8)   4 (1.0) 2 (4.0)  
Caesarean 250 (6.7) 12 (6.9)   240 (7.3) 9 (7.3)   10 (2.4) 3 (6.0)  
  1. ap value obtain through the use of a chi-squared test or Fisher’s exact test.
  2. bNot applicable: data were not collected in the study.
  3. cDoctor, nurse, or trained midwife.
  4. na, not available.