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Table 2 Characteristics of infants with asphyxia and infants with both asphyxia and prolonged rupture of membranes (PROM) in Bangladesh

From: Maternal infection and risk of intrapartum death: a population based observational study in South Asia

Factors Associated with maternal infection Bangladesh  
  Overall (n = 3350) Asphyxia alone (n = 2502) Asphyxia and PROM (n = 848) p valuea
Newborn health     
Early neonatal death, n (%)     
No 2792 (83.3) 2107 (84.2) 685 (80.8) 0.020
Yes 558 (16.7) 395 (15.8) 163 (19.2)  
Signs of maternal infection     
Fever up to three days prior to delivery, n (%)     
No 3230 (96.4) 2420 (96.7) 810 (95.5) 0.103
Yes 120 (3.6) 82 (3.3) 38 (4.5)  
Missing     
Vaginal smell up to three days prior to delivery, n (%)     
No 2570 (76.7) 1945 (77.7) 625 (73.7) <0.001
Yes 109 (3.3) 52 (2.1) 57 (6.7)  
Missing 671 (20.0) 505 (20.2) 166 (19.6)  
Maternal characteristics     
Maternal education, n (%)     
No education 711 (21.2) 525 (21.0) 186 (21.9) 0.436
Primary 1179 (35.2) 896 (35.8) 283 (33.4)  
Secondary 1460 (43.6) 1081 (43.2) 379 (44.7)  
Maternal reading ability, n (%)     
Unable to read 862 (25.7) 632 (25.3) 230 (27.1) 0.038
Reads with difficulty 667 (19.9) 525 (21.0) 142 (16.8)  
Reads with ease 1817 (54.2) 1343 (53.7) 474 (55.9)  
Missing 4 (0.1) 2 (0.1) 2 (0.2)  
Maternal age in years, n (%)     
<20 797 (23.8) 625 (25.0) 172 (20.3) 0.074
20–29 2014 (60.1) 1482 (59.2) 532 (62.7)  
30–39 506 (15.1) 369 (14.8) 137 (16.2)  
40+ 32 (1.0) 25(1.0) 7 (0.8)  
Missing 1 (0.0) 1 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
Household assets, n (%)     
All 1288 (38.5) 954 (38.1) 334 (39.4) 0.552
Some 917 (27.4) 697 (27.9) 220 (25.9)  
None 1145 (34.2) 851 (34.0) 294 (34.7)  
Parity, n (%)     
1 1623 (48.5) 1194 (47.7) 429 (50.6) 0.580
2 724 (21.6) 551 (22.0) 173 (20.4)  
3 445 (13.3) 331 (13.2) 114 (13.4)  
4 251 (7.5) 195 (7.8) 56 (6.6)  
5 154 (4.6) 119 (4.8) 35 (4.1) 0.580
6 153 (4.6) 112 (4.5) 41 (4.8)  
Antenatal period     
Number of antenatal care visits, n (%)     
0 882 (26.3) 688 (27.5) 194 (22.9) 0.067
1 674 (20.1) 507 (20.3) 167 (19.7)  
2 614 (18.3) 453 (18.1) 161 (19.0)  
3 486 (14.5) 360 (14.4) 126 (14.9)  
4 689 (20.6) 490 (19.6) 199 (23.5)  
Missing 5 (0.2) 4 (0.2) 1 (0.l)  
Bleeding during pregnancy, n (%)     
No 3182 (95.0) 2401 (96.0) 781 (92.1) <0.001
Yes 166 (5.0) 100 (4.0) 66 (7.8)  
Missing 2 (0.1) 1 (0.0) 1 (0.1)  
Delivery period     
Preterm birth, n (%)     
Baby born at term 3004 (89.7) 2250 (89.9) 754 (88.9) 0.565
Baby born after less than 9 months gestation 341 (10.2) 249 (10.0) 92 (10.9)  
Missing 5 (0.2) 3 (0.1) 2 (0.2)  
Baby delivered by skilled delivery attendant, n (%)b     
Yes 2338 (69.8) 1814 (72.5) 524 (61.8) <0.001
No 1002 (29.9) 681 (27.2) 321 (37.9)  
Missing 10 (0.3) 7 (0.3) 3 (0.4)  
Institutional delivery, n (%)     
Yes 2458 (73.4) 1901 (76.0) 557 (65.7) <0.001
No 889 (26.5) 598 (23.9) 291 (34.3)  
Missing 3 (0.1) 3 (0.1) 0 (0.0)  
Excessive bleeding during delivery, n (%)     
No 3234 (96.5) 2425 (96.9) 809 (95.4) 0.036
Yes 116 (3.5) 77 (3.1) 39 (4.6)  
Malpresentation at birth     
No 2858 (85.3) 2162 (86.4) 696 (82.1) 0.001
Yes 279 (8.3) 202 (8.1) 77 (9.1)  
Missing 213 (6.4) 138 (5.5) 75 (8.8)  
Type of delivery     
Normal, vaginal 3043 (90.8) 2302 (92.0) 741 (87.4) <0.001
Vaginal, assisted 83 (2.5) 59 (2.4) 24 (2.8)  
Caesarean 224 (6.7) 141 (5.6) 83 (9.8)  
  1. ap value obtain through the use of chi-squared test or Fisher’s exact test.
  2. bDoctor, nurse, or trained midwife.