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Table 1 Coping strategies according to prenatal and postnatal anxiety levels, including means, standard deviations (SD), F and degrees of freedom as well as comparisons between groups over time

From: Anxiety symptoms and coping strategies in the perinatal period

Coping strategies T1 (3rd trim. pregnancy) n = 400 T2 (2 months postpartum) n = 158 Group effect Time effect
  Mean (SD) Mean (SD) F(df) p F(df) p
Active coping       
No anxiety 3.15 (0.45) 3.00 (0.65)     
Moderate anxiety 3.09 (0.45) 3.04 (0.48)     
Severe anxiety 3.08 (0.54) 2.97 (0.67) 0.16 (2) n.s. 4.85 (1) 0.03
Planning       
No anxiety 3.12 (0.46)g 2.98 (0.61)g     
Moderate anxiety 3.15 (0.45) 3.03 (0.47)     
Severe anxiety 3.02(0.46) 3.08 (0.58) 0.13 (2) n.s. 4.23 (1) 0.04
Using instrumental support       
No anxiety 3.15 (0.64)g 2.89 (0.81)g     
Moderate anxiety 3.09 (0.62) 3.06 (0.70)     
Severe anxiety 3.19 (0.77) 2.95 (0.84) 1.33 (2) n.s. 10.65 (1) 0.001
Using emotional support       
No anxiety 3.17 (0.72) 2.94 (1.23)     
Moderate anxiety 3.27 (0.58) 3.12 (0.65)     
Severe anxiety 3.29 (0.69)i 2.94 (0.83)i 0.59 (2) n.s. 6.87 (1) 0.01
Venting       
No anxiety 3.11 (0.60)g 2.91 (0.72)g     
Moderate anxiety 3.03 (0.71) 2.94 (0.64)     
Severe anxiety 3.15 (0.71) 2.92 (0.89) 0.07 (2) n.s. 9.58 (1) 0.002
Acceptance       
No anxiety 3.39 (0.36)d.e 3.38 (0.47)     
Moderate anxiety 3.24 (.036)d 3.24 (0.58)     
Severe anxiety 3.13 (0.48)e 3.32 (0.61) 2.89 (2) 0.05 0.64 (1) ns
Denial       
No anxiety 1.63 (0.75)a.e.g 1.43 (0.59)a.b.g     
Moderate anxiety 1.92 (0.72)a 1.68 (0.76)a     
Severe anxiety 1.90 (0.69)e 1.81 (0.85)b 5.44 (2) 0.05 7.87 (1) 0.06
Self-Blame       
No anxiety 2.31 (0.75)a.g 1.98 (0.69)a.b.g     
Moderate anxiety 2.44 (0.70)b 2.33 (0.81)a     
Severe anxiety 2.87 (0.84)a.b 2.63 (0.90)b 12.64 (2) 0.001 11.23 (1) 0.001
Humour       
No anxiety 1.97 (0.80) 1.98 (0.85)     
Moderate anxiety 1.78 (0.67) 1.72 (0.73)     
Severe anxiety 1.73 (0.63) 1.68 (0.65) 3.19 (2) 0.04 0.07 (1) n.s.
Religion       
No anxiety 1.90 (0.94)g 1.70 (0.91)g     
Moderate anxiety 1.63 (0.81) 1.58 (0.79)     
Severe anxiety 1.90 (0.92)i 1.60 (0.93)i 0.779 (2) n.s. 9.43 (1) 0.01
Distraction       
No anxiety 2.88 (0.74)g 2.37 (0.93)g     
Moderate anxiety 3.04 (0.59)h 2.46 (0.74)h     
Severe anxiety 2.73 (0.70)i 2.19 (0.92)i 1.79 (2) n.s. 49.72 (1) 0.001
Substance use       
No anxiety 1.05 ( 0.18) 1.13 (0.45)     
Moderate anxiety 1.10 (0.28) 1.12 (0.29)     
Severe anxiety 1.03 (0.18) 1.26 (0.68) 0.56 (2) n.s. 5.275 (1) 0.023
Behavioural Disengagement       
No anxiety 1.51 (0.49) 1.50 (0.59)     
Moderate anxiety 1.77 (0.68) 1.65 (0.61)     
Severe anxiety 1.61 (0.57) 1.58 (0.65) 2.81 (2) n.s. 0.50 (1) n.s.
Positive reframing       
No anxiety 3.01 (0.60)d 2.93 (0.58)a     
Moderate anxiety 2.91 (0.48) 2.77 (0.69)     
Severe anxiety 2.73 (0.70)d 2.60 (0.69)a 4.22 (2) 0.016 3.71 (1) ns
  1. Note: Group effect: a,b,c : p ≤0.05; d,e,f: 0.05 > p < 0.10; n.s.: non significant.
  2. Time effect: g,h,i : p ≤0.05.