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Table 1 Age-standardized covariates across quintiles of total vitamin D intake in 44,825 pregnant Danish women

From: Vitamin D intake in mid-pregnancy and child allergic disease – a prospective study in 44,825 Danish mother-child pairs

  Quintile of total maternal vitamin D in pregnancy1
  1 2 3 4 5
  (n=8965) (n=8965) (n=8965) (n=8965) (n=8965)
Total Vitamin D (μg/day)      
  Median 5.5 8.2 11.7 13.0 16.5
  5%-95%ile 1.8-7.1 7.3-9.4 9.9-12.3 12.4-14.0 14.2-27.4
Vitamin D from supplement (μg/day)      
  Median 0 5.0 7.1 10.0 15.0
Vitamin D from diet (μg/day)      
  Median 1.8 2.4 3.0 4.0 5.9
Maternal age in years (mean±SD) 2      
 <=20 (19.2±1.0) 2 1 2 2 1
 20-25 (23.7±1.3) 19 16 20 20 16
 25-30 (28.0±1.4) 44 45 46 45 46
 30-35 (32.7±1.4) 28 30 25 26 29
 >35 (37.6±1.7) 8 7 6 7 8
Parity      
 Nulliparous 49 52 59 58 63
Socioeconomic position      
  High level proficiencies 22 24 24 22 27
  Medium level proficiencies 32 32 32 32 32
  Skilled 28 27 27 28 25
  Unskilled 13 12 12 13 11
  Students 3 4 3 3 4
  Unemployed 2 2 1 2 1
Pre-pregnancy BMI in kg/m 2 (mean±SD)      
 <=18.5 (17.8±0.7) 4 4 4 5 4
 18.6-24.9 (21.7±1.7) 67 69 68 67 70
 25-29.9 (27.0±1.4) 20 20 20 20 18
 >=30 (33.7±4.1) 8 8 8 8 7
Breastfeeding duration      
 No breastfeeding 2 2 3 2 2
 0-1 months 10 9 10 9 9
 2-3 months 10 10 11 11 11
 4-6 months 19 18 19 19 18
  >=7 months 59 61 57 58 60
Smoking in pregnancy      
 Nonsmoker 75 76 76 74 77
 Occasional smoker 12 12 13 14 14
 Current smoker 12 11 12 12 10
Second-hand smoking      
 Yes 46 46 45 47 44
Partner smoking      
 Yes 29 28 29 29 28
Physical activity in min/week (mean±SD)      
 0 (0±0) 64 61 61 61 57
 1-44 (29±7) 5 5 5 5 6
 45-74 (57±7) 9 10 9 9 10
 75-149 (105±19) 11 12 12 12 13
  >=150(265±162) 11 12 12 12 14
Outdoor activity in min/week (mean±SD)      
 0 (0±0) 83 83 83 83 82
 1-59 (35±11) 3 2 2 2 2
 60-119 (79±17) 5 6 5 5 6
 >=120 (237±168) 9 9 10 9 10
Maternal asthma      
 Yes 9 9 10 9 10
Maternal allergy      
 Yes 32 32 32 32 33
Paternal asthma      
 Yes 8 9 8 8 8
Paternal allergy      
 Yes 24 25 25 24 26
Season of LMP      
 Winter 27 26 26 25 27
 Spring 25 23 25 26 24
 Summer 21 24 23 24 23
 Fall 27 27 26 25 26
Total solarium use in pregnancy in weeks (mean±SD)      
 0 (0±0) 76 75 74 74 72
 1-3 (1.5±0.7) 14 15 16 15 16
 4-20 (9.7±4.8) 8 8 8 9 9
 21-40 (30.3±4.0) 2 2 2 2 3
Child sex (male) 50 51 51 51 52
Gestational weight gain (g/week) 469(214) 468(211) 473(215) 474(213) 473(208)
Gestational age (days) 280(13) 280(13) 280(12) 280(13) 280(13)
Birth weight (g) 3,584(571) 3,598(571) 3,578(564) 3,572(567) 3,557(578)
Maternal food and nutrient intake      
 Fruit intake (g/day)3 325(275) 319(255) 346(294) 332(265) 344(260)
 Vegetables intake (g/day)3 125(98) 129(95) 130(98) 130(93) 148(106)
 Energy (kJ/day) 10,073(2,683) 10,257(2,613) 9,919(2,637) 10,226(2,703) 9,727(2,663)
 Alcohol (g/day) 1.6(2.3) 1.6(2.4) 1.5(2.1) 1.5(2.0) 1.6(2.3)
 Total folate (μg/day) 466(188) 567(215) 680(162) 726(148) 758(224)
 Total calcium (mg/day) 1,456(490) 1,541(486) 1,526(516) 1,582(519) 1,753(618)
 Total EPA+DPA+DHA (mg/day) 48.3(318.3) 50.4(311.0) 65.0(359.9) 48.3(315.8) 75.4(396.8)
 Total vitamin A (μg/day) 1,227(557) 1,659(469) 1,399(506) 1,351(439) 1,545(669)
 Total vitamin E (mg/day) 16.4(34.8) 22.0(26.3) 19.6(29.1) 17.8(22.9) 23.8(40.0)
 Total vitamin C (mg/day) 191(135) 228(134) 235(136) 229(125) 264(161)
 Total selenium (μg/day) 62.9(25.2) 90.3(22.3) 80.3(21.2) 81.8(15.8) 92.5(28.5)
 Total zinc (mg/day) 18.8(7.2) 25.9(5.3) 22.4(5.6) 21.9(4.9) 24.4(9.3)
  1. Values are means(SD) or percentages and are standardized to the age distribution of the study population.
  2. 1% or means (SD).
  3. 2Value is not age adjusted.
  4. 3Including fruit/vegetable juices.
  5. EPA: Eicosapentaenoic acid.
  6. DPA: Docosapentaenoic acid.
  7. DHA: Docosahexaenoic acid.