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Table 4 Attitudes to target behaviours, quality of life and mental health assessment

From: Developing a complex intervention for diet and activity behaviour change in obese pregnant women (the UPBEAT trial); assessment of behavioural change and process evaluation in a pilot randomised controlled trial

Attitudes to target behaviours Control Intervention Treatment effect
Barriers     
Diet Baseline 2.49 (0.58) 2.37 (0.61)  
  28 weeks 2.45 (0.58) 2.14 (0.68) −0.18 (−0.35 to 0.00)
Physical activity Baseline 2.64 (0.55) 2.48 (0.63)  
  28 weeks 2.47 (0.50) 2.20 (0.61) −0.20 (−0.37 to −0.03)
Perceived benefits     
Diet Baseline 3.75 (0.72) 3.80 (0.64)  
  28 weeks 3.79 (0.67) 3.97 (0.80) 0.13 (−0.10 to 0.36)
Physical activity Baseline 3.94 (0.70) 4.04 (0.54)  
  28 weeks 3.84 (0.60) 4.06 (0.69) 0.17 (−0.04 to 0.38)
Confidence     
Diet Baseline 3.78 (0.75) 3.84 (0.64)  
  28 weeks 3.71 (0.72) 3.85 (0.81) 0.11 (−0.15 to 0.37)
Physical activity Baseline 3.76 (0.88) 3.92 (0.81)  
  28 weeks 3.77 (0.88) 3.81 (1.06) −0.05 (−0.40 to 0.30)
Quality of life (EQ-5D)   Control Intervention Treatment effect
n: baseline, 28 weeks   n = 87, 75 n = 94, 80  
Numbers reporting problems    
Mobility Baseline 10 (11%) 11 (12%)  
  28 weeks 21 (28%) 25 (31%) 4% (−10 to 18)
Change (all women)    19% (11 to 27)
Self-care Baseline 1 (1%) 0 (0%)  
  28 weeks 3 (4%) 3 (4%) −0.3% (−6 to 6)
Change (all women)    4% (0 to 8)
Usual activities Baseline 16 (18%) 13 (14%)  
  28 weeks 26 (34%) 26 (33%) −1% (−15 to 12)
Change (all women)    16% ( 8 to 24)
Pain & discomfort Baseline 38 (43%) 34 (36 %)  
  28 weeks 45 (60%) 54 (67%) 10% (−1 to 22)
Change (all women)    25% (17 to 34)
Anxiety & depression Baseline 22 (25%) 20 (21%)  
  28 weeks 11 (15%) 17 (21%) 5% (−4 to 15)
Change (all women)    −6% (−14 to 1)
TTO score Baseline 0.85 (0.18) 0.88 (0.14)  
  28 weeks 0.79 (0.24) 0.79 (0.16) −0.03 (−0.07 to 0.02)
Change (all women)    −0.08 (−0.10 to −0.06)
VAS (0 to 100) Baseline 76 (20) 76 (21)  
  28 weeks 75 (21) 78 (21) 4 (−3 to 10)
Change (all women)    −2 (−6 to 2)
EPDS     
Total Baseline 7.1 (4.6) 7.4 (4.5)  
  28 weeks 6.9 (4.2) 7.1 (5.2) 0.1 (−1.1 to 1.3)
Total Score > 9 Baseline 25 (29%) 28 (30%)  
  28 weeks 17 (23%) 21 (26%) 1% (−9 to 11)
Total score > 12 Baseline 9 (10%) 10 (11%)  
  28 weeks 6 (8%) 14 (18%) 7% (−1% to 16)
  1. Attitude to target behaviours are based on the average of multiple responses on 5-point scales, with 5 indicating the greatest barrier, perceived benefit, or level of confidence, and 1 the least.
  2. Abbreviations: EQ-5D EuroQol 5 dimensional quality of life scale, TTO Time Trade Off health state ratings calculated from standard values elicited using the time trade-off method. VAS visual analogue scale, EPDS Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Score. Summaries are n (%) or mean (SD) as appropriate. For the EuroQoL subscales, the overall change over time is estimated as a risk difference, by McNemar’s test of changes. Elsewhere, differences are calculated by linear or binomal regression as appropriate, adjusting for baseline values.