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Table 2 Dietary outcomes

From: Developing a complex intervention for diet and activity behaviour change in obese pregnant women (the UPBEAT trial); assessment of behavioural change and process evaluation in a pilot randomised controlled trial

   Control Intervention Difference(95%CI) P value
n: baseline, 28 weeks’   n = 89, 69 n = 94, 71   
Total Energy (MJ/d) Baseline 7.53 (2.21) 7.26 (2.29)   
  28 weeks 7.71 (2.30) 6.75 (2.57) −0.94 (−1.72 to −0.18) 0.016
Dietary GI (%) Baseline 58 (6) 58 (5)   
  28 weeks 60 (26) 53 (13) −7 (−15 to 0) 0.054
Dietary GL (g/d) Baseline 133 (48) 129 (41)   
  28 weeks 146 (55) 111 (39) −33 (−47 to −20) <0.001
GL (%E) Baseline 27.7 (5.3) 28.5 (5.9)   
  28 weeks 31.3 (13.3) 26.6 (8.0) −4.8 (−8.5 to −1.0) 0.013
Carbohydrate (%E) Baseline 48.0 (8.4) 48.9 (9.6)   
  28 weeks 48.2 (8.0) 50.0 (8.2) 1.7 (−1.0 to 4.4) 0.207
Protein (%E) Baseline 15.5 (3.6) 16.0 (4.2)   
  28 weeks 15.5 (3.2) 17.1 (4.9) 1.5 ( 0.1 to 2.8) 0.034
Protein (g) Baseline 69.3(25.3) 68.5 (26.1)   
  28 weeks 70.6 (24.0) 66.5 (23.5) −4.8 (−12.3 to 2.6) 0.204
Total fat (%E) Baseline 36.0 (8.2) 34.9 (9.3)   
  28 weeks 35.9 (7.7) 32.5 (7.4) −3.2 (−5.6 to −0.8) 0.010
SFA (%E) Baseline 12.7 (3.9) 12.0 (4.3)   
  28 weeks 12.9 (3.9) 11.1 (3.8) −1.6 (−2.8 to −0.3) 0.015
MUFA (%E) Baseline 12.1 (4.1) 11.4 (4.0)   
  28 weeks 11.6 (4.0) 10.4 (3.2) −1.0 (−2.2 to 0.2) 0.088
PUFA (%E) Baseline 6.4 (3.0) 6.0 (3.1)   
  28 weeks 5.9 (2.8) 6.0 (2.7) 0.13 (−0.8 to 1.1) 0.774
P:S ratio Baseline 0.56 (0.31) 0.56 (0.40)   
  28 weeks 0.51 (0.35) 0.64 (0.52) 0.13 (−0.01 to 0.28) 0.075
NSP (g) Baseline 11.2 (4.6) 10.4 (4.6)   
  28 weeks 10.5 (4.2) 12.0 (6.0) 1.77 ( 0.08 to 3.47) 0.040
  1. Abbreviations: GI glycaemic index, GL glycaemic load, MUFA monounsaturated fatty acid, NSP non-starch polysaccharide, P:S ratio polyunsaturated fatty acid, saturated fatty acid ratio; PUFA polyunsaturated fatty acid, SFA saturated fatty acids,%E: percentage energy.
  2. For each dietary variable, results are presented in two lines: at trial entry (Baseline; 16+0-18+6 weeks’ gestation) and after randomised treatment, with comparisons and p-values only for the randomised comparison. Comparisons are adjusted for baseline levels throughout.