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Table 2 Knowledge, attitudes and practices of pregnant women, overall and by ANC attendance

From: Health and nutrition knowledge, attitudes and practices of pregnant women attending and not-attending ANC clinics in Western Kenya: a cross-sectional analysis

Variable Overall ANC attendancea p-values*
Attending Non-attending
n (%) 979 582 (59.4) 382 (39.0)  
Nutrition knowledge score 4.61 ± 1.91 4.62 ± 1.91 4.59 ± 1.9 0.839
 Low (<4) 320 (32.7) 192 (32.9) 122 (31.9) 0.866
 Moderate (4–6) 450 (46.0) 264 (45.4) 180 (47.1)  
 High (7–11) 209 (21.4) 126 (21.7) 80 (20.9)  
Health and healthcare knowledge score 6.18 ± 1.7 6.28 ± 1.6 6.04 ± 1.8 0.045
 Low (<5) 332 (33.9) 186 (31.9) 141 (36.9) 0.261
 Moderate (6–7) 437 (44.6) 265 (45.5) 165 (43.2)  
 High (8–12) 210 (21.5) 131 (22.5) 76 (19.9)  
Attitude score 7.39 ± 2.2 7.48 ± 2.2 7.24 ± 2.2 0.089
 Low (<5) 138 (14.1) 74 (12.7) 62 (16.2) 0.259
 Medium (5–7) 258 (26.4) 152 (26.1) 102 (26.7)  
 High (8–10) 583 (59.6) 356 (61.2) 218 (57.1)  
Dietary diversity score 4.89 ± 1.4 4.90 ± 1.5 4.87 ± 1.4 0.803
 Low(<4) 151 (15.4) 94 (16.2) 56 (14.7) 0.677
 Moderate (4–7) 790 (80.7) 464 (79.7) 313 (81.9)  
 High (8–12) 38 (3.9) 24 (4.1) 13 (3.4)  
Seeking malaria & antihelmintic treatmentb
 No treatment 296 (34.4) 101 (17.4) 195 (70.4) <0.0001b
 Anthelmintic treatment alone 18 (2.1) 16 (2.8) 2 (0.7)  
 Malaria treatment alone 386 (44.9) 321 (55.2) 65 (23.5)  
 Both treatments 160 (18.6) 144 (24.7) 15 (5.4)  
Food intake during pregnancyc
 Less than before 419 (47.6) 272 (47.8) 145 (46.9) 0.266
 Same as before 234 (26.6) 159 (27.9) 75 (24.3)  
 More than before 228 (25.9) 138 (24.3) 89 (28.8)  
  1. *p-values for Chi-square test for comparison proportions is significant at a two-sided alpha of <0.05.
  2. 1 Mean ± Standard Deviation (SD) for continuous scale; the scores are categorized for descriptive purposes.
  3. a Missing ANC attendance data for n = 15 women, effecting sample size for ANC attendance comparisons, n = 964.
  4. b Missing seeking treatment values for n = 120; effective n = 859; For chi-square statistic, antihelmintic treatment was combined with malaria treatment (seeking only one treatment) due to a cell count of <5.
  5. c Missing values for amount food intake during pregnancy, as compared to before pregnancy in n = 101 women; effective n = 878.