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Table 1 Participant and household demographics by whole sample and ANC attendance

From: Health and nutrition knowledge, attitudes and practices of pregnant women attending and not-attending ANC clinics in Western Kenya: a cross-sectional analysis

Variable Overall ANC attendancea p-values*
Attending Non-attending
n (%) 979 582 (59.4) 382 (39.0)  
Age, years 26.38 ± 6.6 26.20 ± 6.8 26.72 ± 6.4 0.233
Average gestational age, monthsa 5.88 ± 2.11 6.97 ± 1.6 4.25 ± 1.6 <0.0001
Gestational age at first ANC visit, monthsa 4.48 ± 1.51 4.48 ± 1.5 - -
Marital status, n (%)
 Single 97 (9.9) 74 (12.7) 22 (5.7) 0.001
 Married 868 (88.6) 497 (85.4) 358 (93.8)  
 Divorced/separated 14 (1.43) 11 (1.9) 3 (0.78)  
Household size 4.65 ± 2.1 4.60 ± 2.2 4.71 ± 2.1 0.478
Household head, n (%)b
 Male headed 905 (92.9) 526 (91.0) 365 (95.8) 0.002
 Female with male support 43 (4.4) 28 (4.8) 14 (3.7)  
 Female without male support 26 (2.7) 24 (4.2) 2 (0.5)  
Household head education levelc
 Less than primary 307 (31.4) 176 (30.2) 124 (32.5) 0.041
 Primary school complete 278 (28.4) 151 (26.0) 124 (32.5)  
 Above primary school 387 (39.5) 250 (43.0) 132 (34.6)  
Mother’s education levelc
 Less than primary 393 (40.4) 218 (37.5) 169 (44.1) 0.121
 Primary school complete 324 (33.1) 201 (34.6) 118 (30.8)  
 Above primary school 261 (26.7) 162 (27.9) 96 (25.1)  
Agricultural activity and selling agriculture products
 Not involved in agriculture/selling products 63 (6.4) 48 (8.3) 14 (3.7) 0.004
 Secondary activity, not selling agri products 81 (8.3) 55 (9.5) 25 (6.5)  
 Secondary activity and selling products 145 (14.8) 87 (14.5) 56 (14.6)  
 Principal activity, not selling agri. products 551 (56.3) 303 (52.1) 240 (62.7)  
 Principal activity and selling products 139 (14.2) 89 (15.3) 48 (12.5)  
Salaried employment, yes 55 (5.6) 33 (5.7) 22 (5.7) 0.954
Casual labour, yes 384 (39.2) 199 (34.2) 175 (45.7) <0.001
Involved in informal business, yes 196 (20.2) 124 (21.3) 70 (18.3) 0.259
Self-employment 224 (22.9) 117 (20.1) 104 (27.2) 0.012
Income generating activitiesd
 Not involved 315 (32.1) 200 (34.4) 111 (28.9) 0.003
 Involved in one activity 486 (49.6) 297 (51.0) 181 (47.3)  
 Involved in two activities 165 (16.8) 79 (13.6) 83 (21.7)  
 Involved in three activities 14 (1.4) 6 (1.0) 8 (2.1)  
Wealth index1,e, quartiles
 1st quartile (Lowest) 233 (24.2) 124 (21.3) 109 (28.5) 0.001
 2nd quartile 243 (25.2) 136 (23.4) 107 (28.0)  
 3rd quartile 240 (24.9) 150 (25.8) 90 (23.6)  
 4th quartile (Highest) 248 (25.7) 172 (29.6) 76 (19.9)  
Radio use
 Everyday 644 (65.8) 398 (68.4) 238 (62.3) 0.004
 At least once per week 128 (13.1) 83 (14.3) 44 (11.5)  
 Irregularly 112 (11.4) 60 (10.3) 50 (13.1)  
 Do not listen 95 (9.7) 41 (7.0) 50 (13.1)  
  1. 1 Mean ± SD.
  2. *p-values for Student’s t-test and chi-square test for comparison of means and proportions, respectively, between ANC attending and non-attending women, significant at a two-sided alpha of < 0.05.
  3. a Missing ANC attendance data for n = 15 women and gestational age data for n = 7 women; bMissing values for household head, n = 5; cMissing household head education level for n = 7 cases; effective n = 972 and missing values for highest level of education, n = 1 mother.
  4. d Income generating activities is a summative variable combining involvement in salaried employment, casual labour, informal business, and self-employment. None of the participants were involved in all four activities.
  5. e Missing data for n = 15 for wealth index status by ANC attendance.