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Table 3 Differences in pooled mean costs, effects (95%CI), and incremental cost-effect ratios (ICERs)

From: Cost-effectiveness of an exercise program during pregnancy to prevent gestational diabetes: Results of an economic evaluation alongside a randomised controlled trial

Analysis Sample size Outcome ΔC (95%CI) ΔE (95%CI) ICER Distribution CE plane
  I C     NE SE SW NW
FCA 49 52 Fasting glucose 986 (−424 ; 2668) −0.021 (−0.22 ; 0.18) −46971 37.1 4.4 5.4 53.2
  49 52 IS homa 986 (−424 ; 2668) 0.006 (−0.005 ; 0.017) 162995 11.4 1 8.9 78.7
  49 52 QALY 986 (−424 ; 2668) −0.005 (−0.031 ; 0.021) −208558 31.4 5.4 4.7 58.4
  49 52 Birth weight 1308 (−229 ; 3204) 156 (−83.9 ; 395.1) 8.4 9.4 0.2 5.6 84.7
HCM 49 52 Fasting glucose 1029 (−392 ; 2830) −0.021 (−0.22 ; 0.18) −49008 37.4 4.3 5.5 52.9
  49 52 IS homa 1029 (−392 ; 2830) 0.006 (−0.005 ; 0.017) 170064 11.2 1 8.7 79.1
  49 52 QALY 1029 (−392 ; 2830) −0.005 (−0.031 ; 0.021) −217602 31.7 5.4 4.5 58.5
  49 52 Birth weight 1352 (−199 ; 3356) 156 (−83.9 ; 395.1) 8.7 9.5 0.2 5.9 84.3
  1. Abbreviations: ΔC; costs intervention group-costs control group, ΔE; effects intervention group-effects control group, 95%CI; 95% confidence interval, ICER; incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, CE; cost-effectiveness, I; intervention group, C; control group, €; Euros, FCA; friction cost approach, HCM; human capital method.
  2. NE; refers to the northeast quadrant of the CE plane, which indicates that the exercise program is more effective and more costly than the control group.
  3. SE; refers to the southeast quadrant of the CE plane, which indicates that the exercise program is more effective and less costly than the control group.
  4. SW; refers to the southwest quadrant of the CE plane, which indicates that the exercise program is less effective and less costly than the control group.
  5. NW; refers to the northwest quadrant of the CE plane, which indicates that the exercise program is less effective and more costly than the control group.