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Table 2 Cost prices (€), multiply imputed and pooled mean (SE) total costs, and mean cost differences (95%CI) during pregnancy for the intervention and the control group

From: Cost-effectiveness of an exercise program during pregnancy to prevent gestational diabetes: Results of an economic evaluation alongside a randomised controlled trial

  Price € (2009) Intervention group n = 49 € (SE) Control group n = 52 € (SE) Cost difference € (95%CI)
General practitioner* 28 43 (7.2) 44 (13.9) −1 (−35 ; 25)
Medical specialists* 72 31 (15) 19 (8.9) 12 (−16 ; 50)
Hospitalisation* 151 – 457 858 (392) 14 (9.7) 844 (298 ; 1955)
Occupational physician§ 23.31 10 (4.3) 13 (4.1) −3 (−13 ; 10)
Mental health care* 65 – 103 26 (12.5) 22 (13.2) 4 (−33 ; 38)
Paramedical professionals*§ 34.51 – 69.34 60 (23) 108 (36) −48 (−137 ; 24)
Dietician* 27 7 (2.3) 9 (4.1) −2.1 (−13 ; 6)
Midwife§ 22.60 107 (11.4) 124 (10.7) −17 (−47 ; 14)
Obstetrician/Gynaecologist* 72 313 (51) 263 (47) 50 (−84 ; 186)
Delivery§ 255.71 – 1047.31 1890 (242) 1568 (182) 322 (−244 ; 904)
Medications   8 (2.4) 6 (1.6) 1.9 (−3 ; 9)
Direct costs including delivery   3354 (491) 2189 (201) 1164 (286 ; 2431)
Direct costs excluding delivery   1463 (407) 622 (53) 842 (260 ; 1978)
Productivity loss FCA¥   1455 (533) 1536 (433) −81 (−1306 ; 1375)
Productivity loss HCM¥   1498 (578) 1536 (433) −38 (−1278 ; 1567)
Intervention 21 225 (29) 0 225
Total costs including delivery (FCA)   5034 (744) 3725 (462) 1308 (−229 ; 3204)
Total costs excluding delivery (FCA)   3144 (666) 2157 (436) 986 (−424 ; 2668)
  1. Abbreviations: €; Euros, SE; standard error, 95%CI; 95% confidence interval, FCA; friction cost approach, HCM; human capital method.
  2. *Prices according to Dutch guidelines for costing.
  3. §Prices according to professional organisation or health care provider.
  4. ¥Production loss per hour based on age and gender, obtained from the Dutch guidelines for costing.
  5. The cost price of the exercise program was €21 per session per participant.