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Table 3 Estimated effect of socio-demographic, social and perception- and service related factors on timing of pregnant women's first ANC visit in months

From: Timing of antenatal care for adolescent and adult pregnant women in south-eastern Tanzania

  Univariate Multivariate (N = 289)
  Coeffb (95% CI) p-value Coeffb (95% CI) p-value
Maternal factors       
Parity (N = 405)       
   Primi -0.47 (-0.76, -0.18) 0.002 -0.87 (-1.32 -0.42) < 0.001
   Multia       
Adolescent/adult (N = 405)       
   Adolescent -0.14 (-0.48, 0.19) 0.406 0.18 (-0.30, 0.65) 0.462
   Adulta       
Marital status (N = 404)       
   Married/Consensual uniona       
   Single 0.01 (-0.36, 0.39) 0.947 0.15 (-0.33, 0.63) 0.532
History of abort/stillbirth (N = 402)       
   No abort a       
   One or more abort -0.23 (-0.51, 0.05) 0.107 -0.46 (-0.79, -0.13) 0.007
Education level (N = 405)       
   No or incomplete formal education 0.03 (-0.21, 0.27) 0.811 0.00 (-0.29, 0.29) 0.987
   Primary + a       
Ethnicity (N = 405)       
   Sukuma 0.54 (0.23, 0.86) 0.001 0.82 (0.44, 1.19) < 0.001
   Other ethnic groupa       
ANC expectations, knowledge and perceived quality     
Perceived ANC timing (N = 383)       
   Within first 3 months a       
   After first 3 months 0.09 (-0.17, 0.36) 0.498 -0.05 (-0.35, 0.24) 0.727
Knowledge of services (N = 405)       
   Lowa       
   High 0.30 (0.01, 0.59) 0.042 0.09 (-0.23, 0.41) 0.572
Perceived service quality (N = 319)       
   Gooda       
   Bad 0.79 (0.30, 1.27) 0.002 0.78 (0.20, 1.36) 0.009
Perceived health worker attitudes(N = 310)       
   Gooda       
   Bad 0.08 (-0.50, 0.67) 0.778 -0.57 (-1.21, 0.07) 0.082
Traditional medicine use (N = 402)       
   Yes -0.31 (-0.73, 0.11) 0.142 -0.07 (-0.55, 0.41) 0.759
   Noa       
Pregnancy perception       
Early recognition of pregnancy (N = 404)       
   Yesa       
   No 0.42 (0.16, 0.68) 0.002 0.47 (0.17, 0.77) 0.002
Waiting for quickening (N = 403)       
   Yes 0.21 (-0.06, 0.48) 0.130 0.15 (-0.15, 0.45) 0.323
   Noa       
Social and economic support       
Money (N = 404)       
   Yesa       
   No 0.27 (0.02, 0.52) 0.036 0.28 (-0.02, 0.58) 0.064
Advised to attend ANC (N = 404)       
   Yes -0.11 (-0.35, 0.14) 0.386 -0.11 (-0.40, 0.18) 0.449
   Noa       
Accompanied to clinic (N = 405)       
   Yes -0.05 (-0.29, 0.20) 0.704 0.08 (-0.21, 0.37) 0.602
   Noa       
Supported by husband (N = 405)       
   Yesa       
   No 0.60 (0.10, 1.10) 0.019 0.69 (0.05, 1.33) 0.035
  1. a Reference category, b Estimated effect derived from linear regression on the timing of the first ANC visit expressed as gestational age in months (f.e. primiparous women started ANC on average 0.47 month earlier than multiparous women). The coefficients in the multivariate model are adjusted for all listed variables