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Table 3 Association between psychological symptoms, bodily changes, birth-related symptoms, breastfeeding, severe fatigue and mode of birth at 3 months after birth

From: Mode of birth and women’s psychological and physical wellbeing in the postnatal period

  Unassisted Vaginala Ventouse-assisteda Forceps-assisteda Unplanned Caesareana Planned Caesareana p
n = 3275 n = 302 n = 359 n = 675 n = 630  
n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)  
Depression b       
  No 3050 (93) 285 (94) 328 (91) 632 (94) 591 (94) 0.53
  Yes 225 (7) 17 (6) 31 (9) 43 (6) 39 (6)  
Anxiety       
  No 3123 (95) 287 (95) 335 (93) 636 (94) 597 (95) 0.41
  Yes 152 (5) 15 (5) 24 (7) 39 (6) 33 (5)  
PTSD symptoms       
  No 2842 (87) 254 (84) 283 (79) 567 (84) 557 (88) <0.001
  1 340 (10) 43 (14) 51 (14) 87 (13) 56 (9)  
  ≥2 93 (3) 5 (2) 25 (7) 21 (3) 17 (3)  
Bodily changes       
  No 2445 (75) 188 (62) 212 (59) 506 (75) 499 (79) <0.001
  Yes 830 (25) 114 (38) 147 (41) 169 (25) 131 (21)  
Birth-related symptoms       
  No 3238 (99) 288 (95) 337 (94) 645 (96) 607 (96) <0.001
  Yes 37 (1) 14 (5) 22 (6) 30 (4) 23 (4)  
Breastfeeding difficulties       
  No 3147 (96) 291 (96) 334 (93) 643 (95) 605 (96) 0.08
  Yes 128 (4) 11 (4) 25 (7) 32 (5) 25 (4)  
Severe tiredness/ Fatigue       
  No 2942 (90) 273 (90) 316 (88) 615 (91) 558 (89) 0.46
  Yes 333 (10) 29 (10) 43 (12) 60 (9) 72 (11)  
  1. aNumbers may not sum to total because some data missing.
  2. bWomen who reported “the blues” were added to this group.