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Table 2 Association between psychological symptoms, bodily changes, birth-related symptoms, breastfeeding, severe fatigue and mode of birth at 1 month after birth

From: Mode of birth and women’s psychological and physical wellbeing in the postnatal period

  Unassisted Vaginala Ventouse-assisteda Forceps-assisteda Unplanned Caesareana Planned Caesareana p
n = 3275 n = 302 n = 359 n = 675 n = 630  
n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)  
The blues       
  No 2850 (87) 266 (88) 295 (82) 574 (85) 544 (86) 0.08
  Yes 425 (13) 36 (12) 64 (18) 101 (15) 86 (14)  
Depression       
  No 3055 (93) 289 (96) 320 (89) 627 (93) 589 (94) 0.02
  Yes 220 (7) 13 (4) 39 (11) 48 (7) 41 (7)  
Anxiety       
  No 2961 (90) 272 (90) 298 (83) 596 (88) 568 (90) <0.001
  Yes 314 (10) 30 (10) 61 (17) 79 (12) 62 (10)  
PTSD symptoms       
  No 2646 (81) 229 (76) 243 (68) 515 (76) 529 (84) <0.001
  1 494 (15) 56 (19) 85 (24) 110 (16) 76 (12)  
  ≥2 135 (4) 17 (6) 31 (9) 50 (7) 25 (4)  
Bodily changes       
  No 2156 (66) 164 (54) 202 (56) 444 (66) 453 (72) <0.001
  Yes 1119 (34) 138 (46) 157 (43) 231 (34) 177 (28)  
Birth -related symptoms       
  No 3017 (92) 242 (80) 250 (70) 546 (81) 534 (84) <0.001
  Yes 258 (8) 60 (20) 109 (30) 129 (19) 96 (15)  
Breastfeeding difficulties       
  No 2828 (86) 246 (82) 286 (80) 551 (82) 555 (88) <0.001
  Yes 447 (14) 56 (19) 73 (20) 124 (18) 75 (12)  
Severe tiredness/ Fatigue       
  No 2487 (76) 222 (74) 246 (69) 488 (72) 469 (74) 0.02
  Yes 788 (24) 80 (27) 113 (32) 187 (28) 161 (26)  
  1. aNumbers may not sum to total because some data missing.